The viral images of Virat Kohli and Babar Azam all-embracing anniversary added afterwards Pakistan’s achievement in the aperture India-Pakistan bout of the ICC Men’s T20 World Cup 2021 allege volumes. The two captains apparently allocution to anniversary added in the aggregate accent that one calls Hindi and the added Urdu. The altered names adapt neither the alternate accuracy nor the bonhomie of their accustomed tongue.
Most abreast writers of Hindi-Urdu are able-bodied acquainted of the basal commonalities amid their clearly angled tongues. Urmilesh of Badayun (1951-2005), a artist and assistant of Hindi, wrote: ham na urdu meñ na hindī meñ ġhazal kahte haiñ/ ham to bas aap kī bolī meñ ġhazal kahte haiñ (“We address ghazals in neither Hindi nor Urdu/ We address ghazals alone in your accustomed tongue”).
This accustomed argot developed during the Sultanate and Mughal periods about Delhi in North India and in the Deccan. With its grammar based on the Khari Boli accent and its cant abundantly derived
from Sanskrit alloyed with words from Persian and Arabic, the new creole acquired altered names over its evolution: Hindvi, Daccani, Gujri, Rekhta, Urdu, and Hindi. The chat ‘Urdu’ is accustomed to accept been acclimated for the aboriginal time as afresh as 1780, by the artist Mushafi (1751-1844). The greatest artist of the 18th century, Mir Taqi Mir (1723-1810), never acclimated it, and we apperceive that Ghalib (1797-1869) awful the chat ‘Urdu’, preferring Rekhta: rekhte ke tumhīñ ustād nahīñ ho ghālib/ kahte haiñ agle zamāne meñ koī ‘mīr’ bhī thā (“You are not the sole adept of Rekhta, Ghalib,/ They say there was a Mir in the aftermost age”).
‘Urdu’, acceptation ‘camp’ in Turkish, referred to Delhi in the Mughal period. Zubān-e-urdu-e-mu’alla-e-shahjehanabad — “The accent of the astral affected of Delhi” — initially meant Persian, the cloister language, and alone later, by the time of Shah Alam II, came to represent the amalgam accent we accept as Urdu today. It became badly accustomed and added formed as the articulation accent beyond the subcontinent. The artist Dagh Dehlvi (1831-1905) declared emphatically: urdu hai jis kā naam hamīñ jānte haiñ ‘dāġh’/ hindostāñ meñ dhuum hamārī zabāñ kī hai (“That which is Urdu, alone we know, Dagh,/ All Hindostan knows the acclaim of our tongue”).
Yet, till the backward 19th century, bodies were hardly acquainted of Urdu and Hindi as actuality two audible languages. The standardised burghal accent was added actuality referred to as Urdu and accounting in the Arabic script, while North India batten added dialects such as Awadhi, Braj, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Bundeli, and so on. Alok Rai (among others) has declared in detail how one accent came to be disconnected into two.
The bisect into avant-garde Hindi and Urdu may be said to activate at Fort William College, the convention of Oriental studies in Calcutta, set up by the British to undertake translations from classical Indian languages into avant-garde Indian tongues and English. They able abstracted accent primers and translated Persian and Sanskrit texts into Urdu and Hindi, differentiated primarily by the script. This sowed the seeds of division, as Urdu and Hindi gradually came to be absorbed to two religions.
Ramlila in Urdu
The British added aided the analysis back the Lt. Governor of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (present-day Uttar Pradesh), Antony MacDonnell, accustomed the acknowledged claim of Hindi and Urdu as two abstracted languages for government jobs in 1900, in what Rai calls the MacDonell moment. Subsequently, the bifurcation was accurate by the Nagari Pracharini Sabha (NPS), founded in 1893 to advance the Nagari script; the Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu, founded in acknowledgment to the NPS in 1903; and the Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, founded in 1910. Though there was abridgement of accuracy over the appropriate appearance of the two languages, except in their scripts, the movements best up beef and contributed in no baby admeasurement to the abstraction of Partition.
Progressive writers ridiculed these political stratagems. Akbar Allahabadi (1846-1921), the wittiest of humorists, poked fun at such distinctions: hum urdu ko arabi kyoñ na kareiñ hindi ko wo bhāshā kyoñ na kareiñ/ jhagde ke liye akhbāroñ meiñ mazmūn tarāshā kyoñ na kareiñ/ apas meiñ adāwat kuchh bhi nahiñ lekin ek akhāda qāim hai/ jab is se falak kā dil bahle ham log tamāshā kyoñ na karein — “Why shouldn’t we about-face Urdu into Arabic and Hindi into Bhasha [Sanskrit]?/ Why shouldn’t we address alienated accessories in newspapers to ammunition the fight?/ There is no alternate acrimony but an amphitheatre is prepared:/ Why shouldn’t we accomplish a scene, back this acclaim the affection of the heavens?” (translated by David Lunn).
The addiction to abet bodies over the Urdu-Hindi bisect continues in absolute India. Its contempo instance is the altercation that erupted over Fabindia featuring a Diwali accumulating alleged ‘Jashn-e-Riwaaz’. Politician Tejaswi Surya, amid others, objected to it, terming the attack an “Abrahamisation” of the festival. Perhaps Surya needs to be told about the abounding Urdu Ramlilas performed in India, such as the one in Faridabad that has been active back 1947 beneath the advocacy of Pandit Vishwabandhu Sharma, whom we afresh absent to COVID 19. It is addition amount that Fabindia additionally (wrongly) hyper-corrected riwaaj to riwaaz in its attack to be added Urdu than Urdu.
I leave you with a composition of abundance on the attributes of Urdu:
The belletrist activate from Arabic,
Aleph, the first, aa,
(title after of Borges’s stories),
Bey, the second, a Turkish title,
by Pe, the third,
we accept larboard the acreage of Bebsi, and Bizza,
having traversed through Persia,
with Fe we accept brought, the fun or skill,
to differentiate the phal from the fruit,
to Hindostan, now India,
where they germinated,
gone are Persian aspirations,
Jeem and Jhe are two audible sounds,
Jute is what you may be captivated in, to your grave,
Jhoot’s the lie that surrounds,
which causes active death.
Jogi from Sanskrit is Urdu,
One that may absolve you,
Train, from English, Urdu too,
from which Raj hangs out,
pleads: adulation is mohabbat, ishq, uns, dosti,
main tumse pyar karta hun.
The writer’s balladry collection, Ghazalnama, was shortlisted for the Sahitya Akademi Yuva Puraskar (English) 2020.
How To Write Queen In Urdu – How To Write Queen In Urdu
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