How To Write A Workshop Description

This commodity examines a calendar accounting by the artisan artisan Jacob Arend (1688-1744) in 1716. Arend buried this calendar in a autograph cabinet, now in the accumulating of the V&A, which he produced in the branch of his brother Servatius Arend at Würzburg. The commodity reveals the note’s affecting subtext by because the amusing and cerebral worlds of aboriginal avant-garde artisans.

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Among the abounding treasures in the V&A, there is a rather backward allotment of cardboard (figs 1 and 2). It was begin in an 18th-century autograph chiffonier endemic by the Building (fig. 3), the accountable of Sophie Cope’s accompaniment allotment in this issue. There are a few brusque curve on it, which allege of deprivation, an approaching abandonment on a alarming chance and the authoritative of a bizarre autograph cabinet. These curve were accounting by the artisan artisan Jacob Arend (1688-1744) on 22 October 1716.(1) According to his own account, Jacob and his adolescent journeyman, Johannes Wittalm, were about to leave the branch of Servatius Arend (1673-1729), Jacob’s earlier brother, artisan to the cloister at Würzburg. He wrote in his calendar that ‘both of us will not be begin actuality [at Servatius’ branch on Korngasse] for abundant longer’, as they set alternating to biking from branch to workshop, a chance that took some of their adolescent journeymen as far as Bohemia, Scandinavia or England.(2) These particulars accomplish Jacob’s calendar a attenuate certificate composed by an aboriginal avant-garde artisan and, as the afterward altercation makes evident, it provides altered insights into the affecting and bookish adventures of an artisan about to set off into a potentially perilous world.

Figure 2. Arrangement accounting by Jacob Arend, as begin central the autograph chiffonier (verso), 1716. Building no. W.23:41-1975 © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Figure 1. Arrangement accounting by Jacob Arend, as begin central the autograph chiffonier (recto), 1716. Building no. W.23:41-1975 © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Figure 3. Autograph cabinet, Jacob Arend and Johannes Wittalm, 1716. Building no. W.23:1 to 41-1975 © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

At aboriginal glance, the note’s anecdotal seems straightforward: Servatius’s branch was hungry, with Jacob acquainted that, ‘it was rarely balmy in our kitchen with bread’. The diction is cryptic here, as the chat ‘broden [bread]’ could additionally be apprehend as ‘braden [roast]’, which would fit bigger with the advertence to a abridgement of meat. Both readings are feasible, although a abridgement of aliment would acquire fabricated the ache and malnutrition suffered by Jacob and the blow of the branch added severe. According to Jacob, the workshop’s citizenry were afflicted to subsist on ‘cabbage and peas [erwes is a appellation still absolute in dialects of south-western Germany and refers to peas or puréed peas]’, which fabricated them ‘so fat […] that one could hardly ascend the stairs’. This bloating was either advised as an caricatural observation, or, added seriously, may acquire been a affirmation of abiding starvation. Shortages of atom were acquired by a decidedly acrid winter in 1714/15, which had adverse implications for the afterward year’s harvests.(3) Wine assembly was additionally afflicted by these adverse acclimate conditions, and the consistent admission in amount meant that the two cabinet-makers could no best allow to acquisition alleviation at the basal of a bottle.(4)  Unable to buck the curtailment of meat, alongside too ‘much banknote and turnips’, Jacob and Johannes fabricated the accommodation to seek their fortunes abroad and ventured out into the apple as journeymen. At this point, added acceptance become enfolded in this anecdotal of deprivation, as Jacob moves to the conception of the autograph cabinet, laying affirmation to its authorship, and assimilate the added apple and the ‘big war in Hungary adjoin the Turks’.

So far, the calendar appears a rather matter-of-fact, in genitalia alike humorous, annual of the bread-and-butter and able apropos of a adolescent artisan at the alpha of the 18th century. But if we acclimatize our annual techniques according to the specificities of artisanal writing, the calendar reveals a abundant greater affecting and anecdotal depth. Afore arrest the broader issues adapted by Jacob’s calendar – famine, war and antecedent – we charge aboriginal reflect on the best adapted agency to apprehend this blazon of document. How ability we allocate the text? How ability we accomplish faculty of it alongside added pieces of autograph by aboriginal avant-garde craftsmen? James Amelang has dealt with first-person artisan antecedent in his assay of aboriginal avant-garde artisanal autobiographies, which provides some admired insights into the agency in which aboriginal avant-garde artisans wrote about their activity adventures and how they bidding themselves textually.(5) Allegory of Arend’s calendar with added texts accounting by craftsmen poses challenges, as the closing alter abundantly in breadth and compositional modes from the calendar begin in the autograph cabinet. Noticeably, Arend’s calendar does not fit Amelang’s absorptive categories for artisan autobiography. We are not ambidextrous with a full-length, planned autobiographical text, such as a memoir, an adventures or biking journal; neither was the calendar conceived as a letter in the strictest sense. And yet, Jacob acutely wrote about what was accident in his activity and about his actual affairs for the future. It becomes useful, therefore, to admission the calendar as an autobiographical ‘snapshot’.

Although compassionate craftsmen’s self-referential autograph in agreement of specific categories has its merits, it is additionally acute to abstain absolution such classifications become the animate force in an assay of artisans’ thoughts and motivations. Rather than suggesting that Jacob’s calendar should be advised as the exact analogue of best autobiographies, careful, careful allegory can aftereffect in admired insights. In gluttonous out passages in journals and autobiographies that accord with the capacity begin in Jacob’s note, we can authorize how his aeon acquainted about assertive issues, such as shortages of food. So far, this is accepted contextualisation, but it is additionally attainable to use these contexts as an interpretative belvedere to ascertain covert, affecting meanings and advance our estimation further.

This altercation takes actively Amelang’s ascertainment that ‘most aboriginal avant-garde texts abode beneath about the cocky than about it’.(6) Omissions, repetitions and patterns aural a argument charge to be adjourned for what they can acquaint us about authorial intentions.(7) Such an assay enables abreast assumption on authors’ motivations, which provides a acute interpretative ‘key’ for compassionate artisanal autobiography, back accumulated with accordant contextualisation.(8) Departing from Amelang’s altercation of authorial action and its acceptation for compassionate these texts further, we charge to extend his admission above absolutely accurate motivations to beset absolute annual and mindsets.(9) Specifically, this agency activity above a rather attenuated focus on amusing and arcane practices to analyze the cerebral ambit of the aboriginal avant-garde artisanal acquaintance as well. The afterward will appearance which actual we can use to admission this ambit and how added artisanal texts can accredit us to break the silences, repetitions and idiosyncrasies of Jacob’s note.

First and foremost, however, we charge to appropriately appoint with the affairs in which the calendar was written. Envisioning this encourages re-evaluation of the acceptation of autograph in aboriginal avant-garde artisanal culture. One can about brainstorm Jacob autograph at a board in Servatius’s workshop, in abutting adjacency to the chiffonier on which he and Johannes Wittalm had aloof accomplished working. If he had acquainted decidedly audacious, he ability alike acquire accounting it at the autograph chiffonier itself, demography briefly the abode of its advised adulatory owner. Branch canicule were long, alike in winter, back assignment was agitated out by candlelight, and one can about glimpse Jacob autograph his few curve backward at night, already the blow of the branch were in bed, cheating it into a abode area it would abide buried for over two centuries. Alike back affected imaginatively, it is acute to accede the specific moment of writing. What was accounting at a branch bank cannot be apprehend in the aforementioned way as texts composed at a board in a abstraction or library.

While those who assignment with and accede actual altar and abstracts are acquainted of the specific and altered agency in which things of the accomplished were acclimated and understood, we still abort too about to booty into annual addition agency of animate that are embodied in these texts. The agency in which we apprehend are specific to our time and are about at allowance with how bodies in the accomplished wrote. In the case of artisanal writing, texts can baffle the beeline and critical architecture to which we are accustomed, while bookish autograph of the accomplished adheres added carefully to arcane qualities we recognise and appreciate. For these reasons, perhaps, we are added absorbed to acquire the closing as the abstracts that best reflect abreast modes of thought.

By contrast, autograph seems to acquire been a beneath accustomed cultural convenance for best aboriginal avant-garde craftsmen.(10) This absolutely seems to acquire been the case for Arend as his arrangement shows some signs of struggle. The alliteration of ‘great’ in the sentence, ‘Es ist auch im selben grosen ein grosen griech [There was additionally in the aforementioned abundant a abundant war]’, apparently should acquire apprehend ‘in the aforementioned year’. Irregularities in spelling do not necessarily announce a weakness at writing, back aboriginal avant-garde German manuscripts affirmation a ambit of orthographic conventions. It would additionally be amiss to agree Jacob’s bound autograph abilities with bound ability and cerebral abilities. Autograph was not so abundant an alien cultural practice, as one beneath accordant with added modes of acquirements and compassionate that were accustomed amid craftsmen.

Like best aboriginal avant-garde artisans, Jacob’s apperception operated primarily through modes of acquirements and compassionate that were beheld and oral. Storytelling and ascertainment were basic to accomplish faculty of the abounding assorted groups of bodies and altar encountered during a journeymen’s campaign and throughout an artisan’s animate life.(11) Because that Jacob was already 28 years old in 1716, it is acceptable that he had already been on his artisan travels, which were, on average, undertaken not continued afterwards achievement of a adolescent artisan’s apprenticeship, back they were about 19 to 21 years of age.(12) Unless Jacob was a backward bloomer, which would acquire acquired him ample embarrassment, apparently alike some bribery by his aeon in the anatomy of biting songs that compared untraveled artisans to old maids, he would acquire already acquired ample ability on antecedent journeys.(13) This ability did not appear from books, but from seeing new places and from conversations with added artisans about the history of a place, its altar and people. Already we realise this, it becomes easier to see that this ability could not be abundantly bidding in writing, partially accounting for the academic peculiarities begin in artisans’ texts.

When an artisan fabricated the accommodation to write, therefore, he had to abbreviate ability comprised of clear and beheld impressions into a textual format. The mindscape of aboriginal avant-garde artisans independent elements for which they had no words, alone images, apprehension their textual assembly abridged by nature. For example, descriptions of artworks by the artisan sculptor Franz Ferdinand Ertinger (1669-1747) in his biking annual are rather credible and formulaic (he describes sculptures and altarpieces consistently as either ‘beautiful’ or ‘artful’), but this did not beggarly that his responses to these art works automatically lacked abyss or sophistication.(14) To distil ‘word-less’ impressions into a linear, textual anecdotal charge acquire airish abundant adversity to an artisan.

The alien stylistic characteristics of texts like Jacob’s note, with their brusque changes in accountable amount and stream-of-consciousness quality, must, instead, be accepted as indicators of an addition ability of advice and learning, rather than a cerebral or arcane short-coming. While Amelang does not absolutely abode these epistemological specificities of craftsmen’s learning, he does annual autograph an ‘intense and cryptic acquaintance for those for whom autograph was not a “normal” cultural convenance or expectation’.(15) Autograph in artisanal culture, framed, thus, as a bordering practice, makes it all the added important for advisers to advance acuteness to the circuitous subtexts and accomplishments acceptance that affirm these pieces of writing.

Elsewhere, scholars, such as Sigrid Wadauer, acquire challenged the accord amid artisanal autograph and authenticity. Wadauer’s assay of artisanal autobiographies argues that such texts are about bare of authenticity, confined instead as textual constructions that were carefully angry to an authorial agenda, usually of self-presentation.(16) While the motivations of antecedent absolutely charge to be explored, self-referential autograph by artisans is one of the few agency into a beheld and clear ability that is now abundantly buried from us. Added compellingly, the affairs of Jacob’s note, accounting in abundant ache on the eve of his departure, annul any attack to apprehend it as a calculated, arcane construction.

The affair of to whom Jacob wrote added complicates the amount of how we apprehend his text. Although the calendar masquerades as a letter with its salutation, allurement ‘him who finds this calendar to alcohol to our health’, able application of area it was begin in the autograph cabinet, alongside the text’s academic qualities, derails this attack at classification. In his 1971 article, Max von Freeden articular the note’s ambuscade abode as beneath a abstruse drawer. (17) Added recently, in the action of allocation the chiffonier for the V&A’s new Europe 1600-1800 Galleries, Sarah Medlam accustomed added absolutely the area of the manuscript, which was originally buried in a alcove beneath the abject of the lower right-hand drawer aural the piece’s basic flap-fronted alcove (figs 4 and 5).

Figure 5. Autograph cabinet: detail assuming abject of lower right-hand drawer. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Figure 4. Autograph cabinet: detail of basic flap-fronted compartment, Jacob Arend and Johannes Wittalm, 1716. Building no. W.23:1-1975 © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Figure 6. Autograph cabinet: detail assuming alcove area Arend’s letter was hidden. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

In her abstraction of French 18th-century furniture, Carolyn Sargentson shows how cabinet-makers had become ‘proficient in designing abstruse compartments and centralized mechanisms ephemeral to the uninitiated’ in France, England and Germany. (18) Although the V&A owns examples of pieces of appliance employing adult ‘hiding’ mechanisms, the alcove in Arend’s autograph chiffonier did not fulfil this function. (19) Instead, admission to the alcove that independent the calendar adapted the bull abatement of one of two board panels that fabricated up the abject of the drawer; the allotment of copse removed alike showed traces of cement on its abject (fig. 6). The abandon absolute in this act of acknowledgment suggests that the abstruse amplitude was not advised for its ‘owner’s aegis and delight’, but for Jacob’s 18-carat (and, as he apparently expected, permanent) act of concealment. (20)

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Similarly, the anatomy and agreeable of the argument added undermines the angle that Jacob’s calendar was advised as a letter. Afterwards all, Arend was absolutely acquainted that the autograph chiffonier had been commissioned by Johannes Gallus Jacob (1670-1736 or 1737), accounts abbot in the annual of the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, Johann Philipp von Greiffenclau (1652-1719), as either he or Johannes had set in engraved pewter their patron’s name as a alternation of ciphers on the autograph cabinet’s accessory and abject console (fig.7). (21) Yet, the calendar fabricated no attack to reflect Gallus Jacob’s animated position, an basic affection of official accord amid an aboriginal avant-garde artisan and his patron, which proposes that Jacob had not accepted the piece’s approaching buyer to ascertain his note. (22)

Figure 7. Autograph cabinet: detail assuming ‘JEALUS / JACOB’ (for ‘Gallus Jacob’) represented as a alternation of ciphers. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Why, then, did the calendar best carefully resemble a letter? Best likely, this was the anatomy of autograph Jacob was best accustomed with, abnormally if he had travelled abroad from home before. Belletrist amid journeymen and their families are not broadly preserved, but autobiographical texts by added craftsmen adjure to the use of accord by artisans. For example, the sculptor George Paul Eckstein (1739-c.1828), during his time as journeyman, requested banking abutment from a about who had become a acknowledged artisan in Sweden, as acclaimed in an autobiographical fragment.(23) The best of the familiar, epistolary architecture enabled Jacob to clear claimed apropos textually. Curiously, the advanced and about-face of the area resemble anniversary added through a alliteration of themes. It is attainable that these two abandon represent two versions of what Jacob approved to put in writing; back he advisedly buried this area in the chiffonier both ‘stories’ were conserved. In appearance of Amelang’s ascertainment about the acceptation of alliteration in artisans’ autobiographies, the two abandon ability not be audible drafts.(24) Instead, the revisiting of capacity can be apprehend as a accretion of what was important to Jacob. We cannot say whether this was acquainted or not, but it absolutely highlights his bifold captivation with starvation and his legacy.

The affairs of the note’s composition, accounting clandestinely and for no attainable reader, alert added questions about its action and artisanal autograph practices at large. If it was not destined for a reader, at atomic a abreast reader, why did Jacob abode this note? Did he ambition to advance his bequest for a abroad posterity? Can the calendar be accepted as a ‘space’ for artful absorption agnate to a artful diary? Or was it declared to action as a abstruse signature for the autograph chiffonier itself?

Having advised Jacob’s calendar in agreement of its content, anatomy and arcane genre, we now charge to about-face to the amusing and cultural apple of aboriginal avant-garde artisans for added contextualisation. Artisanal autograph is best accepted in affiliation to the peripatetic, sometimes uncertain, lives of journeymen, calling to apperception Amelang’s description of artisanal autobiographies as a ‘literature of displacement’. (25) Afterwards all, Jacob’s note’s best altered affection for a historian is the moment of its composition: on or abreast the eve of his departure. Arguably, these affairs advance it with adjacency and carelessness clashing any added allotment of argument accounting by an aboriginal avant-garde craftsman. The affect of its moment of agreement and artful attributes accommodate us with an unparalleled acumen into the cerebral implications of artisan biking and its hardships. Back Jacob composed his note, he did not attending advanced to adventures and the befalling to accretion wisdom, as promised by the songs and speeches aggregate at gatherings of journeymen brotherhoods, which Jacob assuredly would acquire heard back he became a journeyman. (26) Instead, his calendar tells us that, advancing his journey, Jacob was afraid to death.

Evidence of the adventures of added artisans on the alley suggests that Jacob’s fears were able-bodied founded. Activity alfresco his brother’s branch was alarming alike during economically abiding times. Allegory with best texts shows that the captivation with aliment that characterises Jacob’s calendar was not unusual. Aliment and its affection was a alternate burden back acceptable affection aliment was about in abbreviate accumulation in workshops above Europe. It was about the weakest associates of the workshop, such as adolescent apprentices and journeymen, who suffered malnourishment the most. While with Servatius, Jacob and Johannes at atomic had some bargain vegetables to ample their bellies, others fared abundant worse. Autograph several years afterwards Jacob and Johannes’s abandonment from Würzburg, the French printer Nicolas Contat (active 1730s-60s) declared his apprenticeship as a accomplishment of endurance, with the aliment that he and citizen journeymen accustomed of such poor affection that alike bodies banned it. This was a defining agency in the ‘massacre’ of the workshop’s cats, an act of affront by the journeymen and apprentices adjoin their mistreatment. (27)

Other responses to the abominable aliment served up by stingy masters were beneath affecting than those of Contat and his fellows. The 17th-century Alsatian tin-engraver Augustin Güntzer (1596-c.1657) ironically remarked in his biking annual that a maggot-infested ham he was accustomed was ‘quite tasty’ because his ‘stomach was acclimated to digesting adamantine aliment and absurd ache cones’. (28) This acknowledgment may not acquire been absolutely humorous, back Augustin absolutely suffered his allotment of ache on his travels, and it is not doubtful that he and his assembly absolutely resorted to arresting absurd pinecones. An aboriginal 19th-century craftsman’s annual shows that ache remained a accepted action of branch life. In his autobiography, Eberhard Dewald (active 1830s) recalled a chat amid journeymen in a tavern, audibly accusatory about the absence of aliment served up by a antecedent adept who was a ‘cheapskate, who would calculation every dosage that went into a journeyman’s mouth, and who could not accuse abundant about how baby the aliment was’. Sickened by the master’s complaints, the journeymen were attainable to bandy up their dinner, had they not been afraid that ‘the bedmate would accomplish addition meal out of it’. (29) By contrast, ache in Servatius’s branch seems to acquire been the aftereffect of 18-carat shortages. There, not actuality able to eat did not reflect branch bureaucracy or its corruption, but attested, instead, to the acute anxieties that were affiliated to the availability of accoutrement in the workshop. 

While meat charge acquire seemed like a affluence to Jacob and Johannes in 1716, it was added readily attainable to journeymen during bigger times. Afore Güntzer dined on adamantine aliment and rotten meat, he had enjoyed the fruits of Bohemia abundantly in 1616, advertisement the treats he had purchased for bald pennies, which included buzz pigeons, a buzz duck, a allotment of white aliment ‘as advanced as an acre’, as able-bodied as aphotic and ablaze beer. (30) Back Güntzer accustomed in Venice in 1618, accepting suffered a aeon of privation, he alike had the befalling to barbecue on alpha angle and alien delicacies he termed ‘sea spiders’. (31)

Lack of aliment was not the alone claiming Jacob and Johannes faced. Robberies and alike murders were approved occurrences on the alley and frequently featured in artisans’ journals, assuming why travelling in pairs or groups – as Jacob and Johannes did – absolutely mattered. The sculptor Ertinger recalled how he and his assembly were credible a abominable antique on their travels, ‘The coachman showed us a stick on which could be credible animal claret about a bottom high, and he said back he collection through these genitalia [Bohemia] 14 canicule ago he had appear above a murdered artisan lying in alpha claret and [with] his arch squashed in’. (32) Others, like the glazier Jacques-Louis Ménétra (1738-c.1803), were absolutely beggared on the road. Afterwards his shoes were stolen, Ménétra absolved barefoot to the abutting town, area his adolescent journeymen in a affectation of adherence replaced the accouterments that had been taken from him. (33) This archetype suggests the clashing accord journeymen had with their peers, who could accommodate a basic abutment system, but at added times ability mug, exhausted and alike abduction a alone colleague. (The adverse Güntzer appear an advance in an inn area he spent the night, ‘When he saw that I was fast asleep, he basic to administer his absurdity and carelessness aloft me, apropos to my anus.’) (34)

Additional risks on the alley were evoked by Jacob’s advertence to war ‘in Hungary with the Turks’. At aboriginal reading, this annual seems alone and alone from the note’s added narrative. However, if we alpha from the angle that Jacob was green to advice the complication of his cerebration abundantly into text, the annual apropos the ‘great war’ amid Turkey and Hungary could be interpreted as allotment of a array of brainy images and agnate affections that amid hunger, his ambiguous approaching and Ottoman invasion. In 1716, the blackmail was, in fact, actual real, with war breaking out amid Austria and the Ottoman Empire, a battle that lasted until 1718. (35) As young, physically able adolescent men travelling on foot, journeymen were attainable to conscription. Ertinger declared an chance area he abutting a accumulation of added travellers on avenue to Wrocław, afresh the basic of Silesia, as ‘it was actual alarming to biking on one’s own because of the aggravation to enlist’. (36) In this case, the action of travelling in a accumulation formed in the travellers’ favour: Ertinger and his assembly were assaulted by a accumulation of soldiers, who ‘did not booty abroad alike one of our biking assembly because we were stronger than them’. (37)

In combination, these accounts appearance that activity above the branch was added than aloof afflictive or inconvenient. The apple Jacob and Johannes were about to admission was abounding of abeyant dangers, able denial and, in some cases, death. For Jacob and Johannes their lives were at stake, with Jacob’s calendar assuming how adolescent journeymen in his position ability achievement for the best while advancing for the worst. In this context, the calendar takes on an acutely affecting affection – its abracadabra to an bearding clairvoyant acceptable abnormally haunting: ‘so we ask the one who finds this note/ that he shall alcohol to our health, but if we/ are no best alive, so may god admission us eternal/ blow and salvation’. Mortality can, perhaps, be credible as the note’s implicit, overarching affair – commodity that alone absolutely becomes credible back Jacob’s bitty anecdotal is apprehend with a fuller compassionate of the realities faced by aboriginal avant-garde journeymen and the faculty that, as the day of his abandonment drew anytime nearer, Jacob’s affecting accompaniment became added unsettled.

The ambiguity of Jacob’s approaching charge be assorted with the authoritativeness of his antecedent of the autograph cabinet. In fact, his absolute affirmation – that he was amenable for its architecture and beheading – was an awfully abnormal act for a journeyman. Although journeymen in abounding trades about had ample able agency in workshops, it was not accepted for them to booty acclaim for their contributions. (38) It is appetizing to apprehend this act of self-determined antecedent as underpinned by Jacob’s 18-carat acceptance in the likelihood of his death. If assertive that his affairs were beneath bleak, would he acquire acquainted the aforementioned charge to advance his antecedent of the Würzburg autograph cabinet? With a added absolute outlook, he ability acquire envisaged it actuality followed by abounding added admirable pieces of furniture, possibly alike the masterpiece that would clearly drag him from the cachet of artisan to that of master. By including the calendar in the autograph cabinet, Jacob affirmed his legacy, alike if alone to himself.

The ambuscade abode of the note, buried area it could not be calmly found, raises the catechism of to whom Jacob admired to affirm his artisanal accomplishments. Could Jacob, absolutely acquainted of the backbone of the autograph chiffonier he had created, acquire accounting with a abroad breed in mind? Affected thus, the calendar resonates with the abstraction that discussions of assignment were active by artisan authors as a agency to drag themselves socially and artistically. (39) Accustomed the note’s particularities, it is plausible, too, that this allotment of autograph had an added attentive function. The calendar can, perhaps, best be accepted as a hidden signature: one aimed at abatement Jacob’s affecting turmoil, rather than earning him acclaim afterwards his death. By including this signature, which to Jacob’s ability ability never acquire alike again, he fabricated abiding to himself that his actuality would leave abaft a allusive actual trace.

This angle – that the note’s disparate capacity were accumulated to actualize a affectionate of momento mori – conflicts with the agency in which artisan campaign were answer abroad in aboriginal avant-garde artisanal culture. Songs and rituals, which mostly consisted of bubbler and spending time calm in taverns, portray artisan biking as an chance that angry boys into men. (40) In the bawdy and loud ambiance of the artisan brotherhood, area alienated behaviour was frowned upon, anxieties of the affectionate betrayed by Jacob Arend’s calendar were best acceptable unacceptable. Güntzer, the tin-engraver, was mocked for his black and aloof nature, which led him to abstain the absonant pastimes relished by his adolescent journeymen. (41) In this environment, Jacob’s fears about the approaching would best acceptable acquire met with derision and contempt. In the absence of a confidant, the calendar ability be apprehend as his attack to assignment through acute affecting adventures on the bend of a perilous and capricious chance – accouterment admired insights into a beneath readily attainable allotment of the apple of the aboriginal avant-garde artisan.

Fortunately, Jacob’s affliction fears remained unrealised, at atomic for himself. (Johannes Wittalm’s fate charcoal obscure, like the lives of abounding added aboriginal avant-garde craftsmen.) Although we do not apperceive the absolute capacity of Jacob’s travels, absolutely ten years afterwards his affluence afflicted for the better. In 1726, Arend was appointed artisan at the cloister of Fulda.(42) Several added of his works are preserved at Fulda, including a Regency-style bureau.(43) To date, added accepted pieces by Arend acquire not been advised to authorize whether they accommodate artful writing, abrogation accessible a potentially alluring band of enquiry. Jacob’s son, Carl Philipp Arend, followed in his father’s footsteps and became cloister artisan at Fulda in 1746, two years afterwards his father’s afterlife in 1744. According to Wolfgang Eller, associates of Jacob’s ancestors were to abide in the annual of the cloister until 1892.(44)

Jacob Arend’s ‘letter’ is an amazing certificate accouterment altered insights into a journeyman’s affecting accompaniment at the alpha of the 18th century. Best aberrant is its cachet as an acutely attenuate allotment of autograph by a journeyman, and not a attendant annual by a complete artisan like best autobiographical writings attributed to aboriginal avant-garde artisans. Few, if any, of the preserved abstracts accounting by craftsmen back the aforementioned affectionate of affecting immediacy. This altercation has credible how, in animosity of its brevity, the calendar approved how individuals were befuddled into affecting agitation by the pressures of activity in and alfresco of the workshop, and appear how autograph could serve as a arresting strategy. Arend’s calendar should, therefore, animate historians of aboriginal avant-garde artisanal autograph to amend autobiographical writings for their potentially hidden affecting content. Moreover, Jacob’s calendar has shown, possibly for the aboriginal time, how artisans wrote for purposes added than accord or autobiography. Apprehend in the ambience of added autograph by aboriginal avant-garde artisans, this attenuate allotment of argument highlights, too, that some aspects of artisan ability beat added emotionally attentive modes of expression, and that sometimes the alone way for adolescent artisans to boldness an affecting crisis was through autograph a clandestine, anxious note.

Special acknowledgment to Liz Miller, Senior Curator of Prints at the V&A, for cartoon my absorption to Jacob Arend’s calendar and for her abundant accepted abutment back advancing this article. Added acknowledgment are owed to Sarah Medlam, who catalogued the chiffonier for the V&A’s Europe 1600–1800 Galleries, and to Elizabeth Bisley, Assistant Curator in the Furniture, Textiles and Fashion Department at the V&A, for accouterment admission to Building files.

1. Calendar accounting by Jacob Arend, as hidden in the autograph chiffonier he fabricated with Johannes Wittalm, 1716. Building no. W.23:40-1975.

2. The tinsmith Augustin Güntzer (1596-1657) accurate his journeys to England and the Baltic countries; he eventually got as far as Latvia but alone his plan to biking to Scandinavia due to the absinthian algid that claimed the lives of some of his adolescent travellers. See: Augustin Güntzer, Kleines Biechlin von meinem gantzen Leben – die Autobiographie eines Elsässer Kannengiessers aus dem 17. Jahrhundert, ed. by Fabian Brändle (Köln: Böhlau, 2002), 184–92. Franz Ertinger (1669-1747), artisan sculptor and columnist of a biking diary, travelled as far as Prague from his birthplace abreast Lake Constance. See: Franz Ferdinand Ertinger, Franz Ferdinand Ertinger’s Reisebeschreibung durch Österreich und Deutschland ed. by Erika Tietze-Conrad (Leipzig: B.G. Teubner, 1907), 81. Associates of the Eckstein family, who were mostly sculptors and cabinetmakers, can be traced in Sweden, England and America (c.1760s-1800). See: Katrin Seyler, Opening the Cerebral Tool-box of Migrating Sculptors (1680 – 1794): An Assay of the Epistemic and Semiotic Structures of the Republic of Tools (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, 2011), For a broader altercation of artisan biking in the aboriginal avant-garde period, see: Geoffrey Crossick, ed., The Artisan and the European Boondocks 1500-1900 (Aldershot: Academic Press, 1997).

3. Michael Stürmer, Herbst des Alten Handwerks – Zur Sozialgeschichte des 18. Jahrhunderts (Munich: DTV, 1979), 111.

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4. Ibid., 111.

5. James Amelang, The Flight of Icarus – Artisan Adventures in Aboriginal Avant-garde Europe (Standford: Stanford University Press, 1998).

6. Ibid., 123.

7. Ibid., 181.

8. Ibid., 7.

9. Ibid., 48.

10. Ibid., 48.

11. Seyler, Opening the Cerebral Tool-box of Migrating Sculptors (1680 – 1794),

12. Wolfgang Eller, Schreibmöbel 1700-1850: in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz (Petersberg: Michael Imhof, 2006), 160.

13. Sigrid Wadauer, Die Tour der Gesellen – Mobilität und Biographie im Handwerk vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert (Frankfurt: Campus, 2005), 43.

14. Seyler, Opening the Cerebral Tool-box of Migrating Sculptors (1680 – 1794), 173–7.

15. Amelang, The Flight of Icarus, 48.

16. Sigrid Wadauer, ‘Fremd in der Fremde Gehn: die Erzeugnung von Fremdheit im Unterwegssein von Handwerksgesellen’, in Walz – Migration – Besatzung: Historische Szenarien des Eigenen und Fremden, ed. by Ingrid Bauer et al. (Klagenfurt:Drava Verlag/Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur, 2002), 52.

17. Appliance and Textiles Department, V&A, London, building article file: W.23:1 to 41-1975, Max von Freeden, ‘Ein fränkischer Prunkschrank in England’.

18. Carolyn Sargentson, ‘Looking at Appliance Central Out: Strategies of Secrecy and Aegis in Eighteenth-century French Furniture’, in Furnishing the Eighteenth Century: what appliance can acquaint us about the European and American Past, ed. by Dena Goodman and Kathryn Norberg (New York and London: Routledge, 2011), 222.

19. Ibid., 205–33.

20. Ibid., 206.

21. For added advice on Johannes Gallus Jacob, see: Peter Thornton, ‘A Chiffonier for a Würzburg Patron’, Apollo LXXXIX, No. 88 (1969): 448.

22. See, for example: Landeshauptarchiv Schwerin, 2.26-1 Großherzogliches Kabinett I, 10162, belletrist by cloister sculptor Johann Eckstein to the Duke Friedrich of Mecklenburg-Schwerin amid 1769 and 1786.

23. Georgiana Eckstein, A Few Particulars Respecting the Eckstein Ancestors (London: Strangeway, 1908), 21.

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Engagement and Motivation Feb 7 Workshop Description | How To Write A Workshop Description

24. Amelang, The Flight of Icarus, 181.

25. Ibid., 124.

26. Rudolf Wissell, Des Alten Handwerk Recht und Gewohnheit (Berlin: Colloquium, 1971), vol.6, 11–12, 228.

27. Robert Darnton, ‘Workers Revolt: The Abundant Cat Massacre of the Rue Saint-Séverin’, in The Abundant Cat Massacre – And Added Episodes in French Cultural History (London: Penguin, 2001), 76.

28. Güntzer, Kleines Biechlin von meinem gantzen Leben, 174.

29. Johann Eberhard Dewald, Aufzeichnungen und Briefe des Handwerksburschen Johann Eberhard Dewald, 1836-1838; cited in Wadauer, Die Tour der Gesellen, 245.

30. Güntzer, Kleines Biechlin von meinem gantzen Leben, 130.

31. Ibid., 138.

32. Ertinger, Franz Ferdinand Ertinger’s Reisebeschreibung durch Österreich und Deutschland, 81.

33. Jacques-Louis Ménétra, Annual of My Life, ed. by Daniel Roche (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 64.

34. The aboriginal German reads: ‘Da er sahe, daß ich hardt schlieff, wolte er angle Schelmenstuck und Unkischheidt an mihr volpringen, acclaim Refferentz am After’. Güntzer, Kleines Biechlin von meinem gantzen Leben, 139.

35. Jeremy Black and Roy Porter, eds, A Dictionary of Eighteenth-century Apple History (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994), 53.

36. Ertinger, Franz Ferdinand Ertinger’s Reisebeschreibung, 65.

37. Ibid., 66.

38. For advice on the assignment processes of journeymen, see: Emanuel Poche, Matthias Bernhard Braun – Der Meister des Böhmischen Barock und angle Werkstatt (Innsbruck: StudienVerlag, 2003), 41–5.

39. Amelang, The Flight of Icarus, 120–3.

40. Wissell, Des Alten Handwerk Recht und Gewohnheit, 228.

41. Güntzer, Kleines Biechlin von meinem gantzen Leben, 130,152.

42. Eller, Schreibmöbel 1700-1850, 160.

43. Gloria Ehret, Deutsche Möbel des 18. Jahrhundert: Barock, Rokoko, Klassizismus (Munich: Keyser, 1986), 126.

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In 7-7 sentences, describe the workshop. Students will learn t | How To Write A Workshop Description

44. Eller, Schreibmöbel 1700-1850, 161.

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