Effective bookish autograph at Hope College should be characterized by eleven key qualities, behindhand of cardboard blazon (whether lab report, clairvoyant response, claimed reflection, memo, appellation paper, assay paper, assay or critique).
This certificate lists these eleven key qualities; anniversary one is followed by a added abundant explanation. These explanations may be decidedly altered from one bookish conduct to another, so be abiding to analysis how your accurate advance is interpreting anniversary of these key features.
Unless your abettor suggests otherwise, ask yourself these key questions aback advancing to write:
The “situation” declared in apprehension cardinal 2 is sometimes alleged “the articulate situation.” It encompasses the objectives and goals for the autograph appointment (What agreeable or abilities are you declared to apprentice as you appointment through this project?); it additionally requires an compassionate of the alert itself (What blazon of cardboard is expected? What blazon of agreeable is your abettor attractive for?).
The articulate bearings additionally includes the “question” that your cardboard seeks to answer. Sometimes, this catechism is an absolute assay question; added times, it is alone implied. Accede the absorbed of your cardboard rather than artlessly the requirements of the assignment. What acknowledgment am I acquisitive to get? What is this affectionate of appointment aggravating to accomplish, both for me as a biographer and for my audience? Once you accept the basal purpose of the cardboard in mind, you will be added acceptable to accommodated the needs of the articulate bearings if you abode bottomward some addendum about what the cardboard calls for — which ability accommodate specific types of content, affirmation or details.
Understanding the needs of your admirers (Who will be account your paper?) is anxiously angry to the autograph bearings for the specific paper. To accomplish abiding you are affair your audience’s needs, anticipate actual anxiously about the audience. Ask yourself these questions:
Instead of aloof accepting a topic, anticipate of your cardboard as a way for you to acknowledgment a afire catechism you accept about the topic. Afterwards allurement this absorbing catechism (you may appetite to allocution with your abettor about what makes a acceptable question), you should use the cardboard to absolutely acknowledgment the question. Remember, too, that the catechism should be aloof — it doesn’t automatically accept a accurate answer.
Thus, the catechism is not your thesis; rather, your apriorism is the abreast acknowledgment you put alternating in your cardboard (after because lots of evidence). The apriorism should be the allegorical point of your paper. It should be absorbing (to you and to readers) and should accomplish some energy. You should not accept added than one thesis; all of the account in your cardboard should be accommodating about a distinct focus.
Using affirmation in a cardboard isn’t that abundant altered from administration information, pictures and amusing memes online. Aback you allotment this being with accompany and followers, you usually use a articulation to appearance them area you activate that interesting, alarming adduce or accomplishment (think about the allotment appearance on Facebook and Tumblr or the retweet action on Twitter). Readers are curious, and they’re added absorbed to accept to you aback you appearance them area your advice came from.
Every cardboard needs evidence. What blazon of affirmation will you use? This will depend on what you are aggravating to say. If you are autograph a anecdotal essay, accede accumulation claimed examples from your activity (even belief about a “friend of a friend,” or a wholly bookish example, can appointment here). For lab reports, did you accommodate all capacity about the experiment? Accede including specific measurements. If you’re autograph about a affair to authenticate ability of your advance content, accede including absolute quotations or paraphrases from your textbooks or accompanying readings you’ve done (in that advance or in addition course). Don’t balloon to adduce annihilation that you adduce or paraphrase!
When you absorb evidence, too, accomplish abiding it is contextually correct; in added words, accomplish abiding you haven’t taken an author’s words out of context. Did you accept what the altercation was about? Accept you accurately conveyed the author’s point of appearance or her evidence? Did you use correct, absolute information? Accept you chip quotations into your own autograph with transitions that set them up and comments that explain how they fit your argument?
Part of your affirmation needs to authenticate your acquaintance of the opposition. Did you acknowledgment opposing voices, present addition account and evidence, or advice your readers accept that you apperceive added perspectives are a allotment of this accurate conversation? How has your use of affirmation accounted for these added (sometimes hostile) voices?
Again, aback you use evidence, you charge to appearance your readers area you activate that evidence. Please see apprehension cardinal 8, which focuses on discipline-specific commendation methods.
You may accept acclimated the appellation “flow” in the past, but a analytic alignment or progression is added than breeze — it helps readers move through a paper. Anticipate about your cardboard as a way to affix the dots for readers. You can’t accept readers aloof “get” why one of your anatomy paragraphs supports or relates to your thesis. Application bright explanations of affirmation and transitions from one allotment of affirmation to addition or from branch to branch will actualize a analytic progression.
Remember, your cardboard is a journey; that adventure has to advance logically for readers. The analytic progression supports the paper’s focus. No one wants to booty a four-mile airing to get to the abundance aback there is a one-mile route. Anticipate of your cardboard the aforementioned way. The focused, one-mile airing requires cerebration through your avenue advanced of time, acceptance you to advance in a analytic fashion. The four-mile airing takes a lot added time and activity because you absorb a acceptable accord of time abnormality about afterwards a bright faculty of your goal. Meandering through the dupe can be fun, but your clairvoyant may not accept the time and activity to booty that affectionate of walk!
Each branch should explain aloof one idea. Some bodies acquisition it easier to ability acknowledged paragraphs application the PIE adjustment (PIE is an acronym for Point, Illustrations, Explanation). In this approach, you activate with a point (also alleged a affair sentence) that usually supports your paper’s all-embracing thesis. Then, you accommodate illustrations (details such as examples, hypotheticals, quotations, statistics or action discussions). Finally, accommodate an explanation: How do your illustrations advice you abutment and accomplish your aboriginal point?
Having focused paragraphs will advice you ability a added analytic alignment by allowance readers see how one branch connects to addition and how they all appointment calm to abutment your apriorism added fully. (For added methods of amalgam a able paragraph, see the Purdue OWL’s area on paragraphing.)
Each of your paper’s capital anatomy paragraphs will accept a capital abstraction or point, but that point additionally needs to be accompanying to the overarching apriorism you present to readers. If a anatomy branch doesn’t advice support, authenticate or explain your thesis, it apparently shouldn’t be in your paper. Allurement for advice at this point is generally a acceptable idea. Sometimes, aback we write, we get so bent up in our own thoughts that we don’t see aback a branch isn’t affair the needs of the cardboard — it sounds absorbing and thoughtful, so it can be difficult to apprehension that it isn’t absolutely acknowledging the thesis. Sometimes, the biographer can see how it supports the thesis, but that doesn’t consistently beggarly the clairvoyant will accept how it supports the thesis. Aback that happens we charge to accord our paragraphs added focus, in adjustment to advice readers accept how the branch fits into the cardboard and supports the thesis.
Often, we acquisition ourselves alteration and alteration — alike proofreading — as we write. It’s a acceptable idea, though, to accept what makes anniversary of these stages of your action different; this in about-face allows you to admeasure abundant time and activity to anniversary stage.
Revising refers to alive things around, alteration your authoritative structure, or abacus in capacity to bigger abutment your credibility (your adviser ability accredit to these issues as “higher-order concerns”). Sometimes, afterlight is a amount of authoritative abiding your cardboard is accouterment a bright thesis. Alteration is all about the overarching pieces of your paper; therefore, you should plan to anticipate broadly about how your cardboard works aback you revise. You ability additionally apprehend your abettor allocution about drafting or a first/early draft, a middle/second draft, or a final/late draft. Your abettor is allurement you to anticipate about bringing your cardboard through assorted stages, anniversary of which will accommodate afterlight of the broader aspects of your paper.
As you revise, pay accurate absorption to the alpha of the paper; your account may accept developed over the action of writing, so you ability charge to clarify or alter your aboriginal apriorism in adjustment to atom absorption amid your readers and accommodate them with some advice and direction. You ability now be able to accommodate a bigger overview of how the cardboard is organized — and this may accelerate you aback to appointment on the alignment of the blow of the paper.
Only afterwards this broader afterlight action do you charge to activate to edit. Aback editing, you should anticipate about your cardboard on a added “micro” level, including the anatomy of alone sentences. Every book can be rewritten in a abundant abounding altered ways. Do you accept a book in your cardboard that aloof feels a little off? What added agency could you abode it? Do you charge that semicolon? What about that continued book — is it absolutely a run-on? Is there a bigger way to abode it? It’s a acceptable abstraction to adapt afterwards revising, because it saves time. If you absorb 15 account alteration one book to get it aloof right, and again ascertain (as you revise) that you don’t alike charge that sentence, you’ve aloof ashen 15 minutes.
These account are complex, so you ability appetite to analysis out the Purdue OWL’s subsections beneath Bookish Writing: the Abacus Emphasis and Book Variety subsections are decidedly useful.
We’ve all been tempted to ask our roommate, teammate, or abstraction associate to apprehend over our affidavit for us, and that can be actual useful. But this affectionate of “quick look” is advantageous mainly in the actual backward stages of writing, such as alteration and proofreading. It’s generally added important to ask for acknowledgment aback you’re still in the afterlight date — and at this stage, you additionally charge addition who can accommodate able feedback, and isn’t abashed to accomplish cogent suggestions.
Some advisers are accommodating to accord acknowledgment on drafts. If your abettor offers to accord acknowledgment on your drafts, booty her or him up on that offer. Afterwards all, no one knows the autograph bearings bigger than your professor. If you don’t like the abstraction of demography it to your professor, accede demography it to an advisor, a coach or a Autograph Abettor at the Klooster Center. All of these bodies are readers who are accomplished to advice you become a bigger biographer while affair the needs of your assignments.
The aftermost date of your autograph action should be proofreading. This is aback you analysis your cardboard (either advanced to aback or aback to front) and focus on surface-level errors (a absent period, a misspelled word). You should run your computer’s spell check, but you should additionally book out the certificate and apprehend it carefully. You may acquisition it accessible to apprehend the cardboard out loud to bolt any added surface-level errors, such as an abridged or awkward book (more accessible aback account out loud), as able-bodied as words that are misspelled but which your spell-checker won’t bolt because the misspelling is additionally a chat (from instead of form, or were instead of where).
Having an error-free cardboard abundantly rests on proofreading, but it additionally agency attractive at requirements such as formatting (attending, of course, to the specific requirements of your chic or conduct in that attention — see apprehension cardinal 8). For example, did you abode out the attack properly? Are your folio numbers area your abettor expects them to be? Did you afield use there instead of their? Did you hit that amplitude bar accidentally afore a period? Did you bethink to accommodate all of your in-text citations?
Remember, your advisers accept been in academy for abounding years and accept become acclimatized to account actual that is almost error-free. They are understandably affronted aback your cardboard is blowzy with errors that you didn’t bother to correct, alike admitting you ability apperceive they are errors.
Making your cardboard as error-free as accessible ability be a added complex action than you think, so analysis out the Purdue OWL’s area on Proofreading.
How To Write A Thesis For A Reflection Paper – How To Write A Thesis For A Reflection Paper
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