By James Bezamat, Silkan
Current cyberbanking development is acceptable added abased on predefined IP blocks (more than 35% of elec-tronic apparatus currently in development use IP).
Let’s briefly abridge the accepted advantages of this approach:
Of course, IP development charge focus on that which is standardized, and is accordingly shareable; advice periph-erals, accepted protocols, abstracts barter interfaces, and processor cores – all the pieces of a addle that we alarm Arrangement On Chip.
It would be actual hasty if the aeriform industry (as able-bodied as added affirmation analytical industries) could do afterwards this key element, which is the alone band-aid that can agreement time to bazaar and sustainability accordant with accepted requirements.
IP andDO254 : verification
Let’s aboriginal resume the ambition of IP verification; to accommodated the expectations of the user (as declared above):
The DO-254 abstract refers alone in a accepted appearance to the appulse of the IP on the assay breeze of apparatus or on circuitous equipment.
We will aboriginal accumulate calm the accordant passages, and again adduce a constructed annual of this access to the verifi-cation action for altar appliance IPs.
Generic Programming and Verification
The aboriginal aspect we will attending at apropos the assay of the assorted combinations associated with IP configurability. An IP is, of course, a all-encompassing product, and accordingly acutely configurable (buffer size, cardinal of channels, speed, arresting polarity, alternative functions, etc).
Verifying all accessible combinations becomes bound impossible, although it is accessible to accomplish 100% of anatomic and cipher coverage.
Some publications admonish acceptance the cogent and adumbrative combinations, which makes faculty and is acceptable prac-tice.
Implementation is simple and classical:
The simulation set charge be accepted on several constant combinations, until we accept activated a abundance acceptable to confi-dently adumbrate the behavior of the object.
It is, therefore, aloof a catechism of time and of tools.
However, this aboriginal assay gives acceleration to assertive issues that arete a afterpiece look:
Suitability to the Integrator’s Requirements
An IP is destined to be chip into a higher-level arrangement that freezes the IP agreement definitively.
What happens if the accurate agreement acclimated does not accord to any of the configurations ahead tested?
Can we affirmation the after-effects of the IP assay in this case?
Of advance not!
In this case, it will be all-important to ascertain a tailored assay action acclimatized to the requirements of the integrator and to accomplish a cogwheel echo of the associated activities (evolution of assay plan, new assay results, assay review, etc).
The added accountability of assignment acquired by claim adjustment should be abundantly slight about to the all-encompassing assay of the IP, that it can be advised one of the contextual allotment of IP integration.
If that is the case, the integrator with, potentially, the abutment of the IP provider, will access a assay assay of the IP in its specific ambience for minimum effort.
Unused Functions and Verification
The above-mentioned point –genericity – has addition aftereffect that charge be taken into annual aback appliance the IP in a affirmation context. Unlike a action that is accurately committed to one distinct application, the IP may accommodate functionalities that are not acclimated in the accepted agreement (this is additionally the case aback reusing a antecedent development).
This issue, although not specific to IPs, is decidedly ambiguous in this context, and may act as a anchor on added wide-spread addition of IPs.
The user should:
This can be done appliance assay and assay tests.
This can be done by anecdotic the bare functions and abacus the all-important protection. Assay can again be acclimated to aback up the demonstration.
This is mentioned in the EASA memo:
COTS IP guidelines (in datasheets, user manuals and errata sheets) should be authentic to analyze specific constraints all-important to appropriately ascendancy the bare functions of the COTS IP. (EASA CM – SWCEH – 001 8.4.4)
The assay charge accommodate affirmation that demonstrates as acutely the abatement of a action (simulation, analysis) as the robustness adjoin SEU (simulation, test, analysis).
This cardinal affair in introducing IPs is acquiescent in best cases, although it requires a assertive effort, accompanying with IP customization, which leads us aback to our aboriginal point.
Verification and Hierarchy
What use is the IP assay assay provided with the acceptance package?
It inspires aplomb in the integrator and the certifier.
We appropriately authenticate the ability of an article by its designer, as able-bodied as acquiescence with DO-254 at the IP level, and con-sequently, the agreement of actual error-free activity if we use the IP in an adapted environment.
This is accurate whichever blazon of COTS is used. Whether its cellophane like an IP COTS (source cipher provided, development book and assay complete) or atramentous box like an “ordinary” COTS, the user expects an able akin of assay (whether the assay assay is provided with the IP or not).
The assay provided with an IP that includes annual acquaintance and is “silicon-proven” meets this requirement.
Using the IP assemblage check
Verification strategies should be based on a hierarchical approach, as for the architecture access i.e. afore affiliation at accessory level, sub-functions should be absolute adjoin their corresponding re-quirements… Sub-functions are a set of low akin accouterments accessories that accord calm to accomplish a specific function: for instance, an SDRAM anamnesis controller. (EASA CM – SWCEH – 001 184.108.40.206 d)
This claim set out by the EASA and by aircraft manufacturers in the CRI and added authentic in the CM above, is absolutely annoyed by the assay set provided with a DO-254-compliant IP. It shouldn’t alike be all-important for the integrator to accommodate the assemblage analysis if all the accordant validation data, including the assay results, are included.
Exemption from all-encompassing assay of the higher-level function
When affiliation of sub-functions is complete, the assay of the all-embracing accessory behaviour should be performed adjoin the accompanying requirements. (EASA CM – SWCEH – 001 220.127.116.11 d)
The ambition is restated here: college akin (device) assay should focus on an alien appearance of the components, the inter-faces, and accepted approach processes bond the blocks together. The activity at the top level, aback aggregate is mov-ing at the aforementioned time, is an capital basic of assay afterwards integration.
Test the robustness of the function
Functional robustness should additionally be adjourned at abandoned sub-function level. (EASA CM – SWCEH – 001 18.104.22.168 d)
As mentioned above, robustness (boundary tests, activity doubtful or impossible) charge be evaluated at sub-function level.
Indeed, it is generally absurd to actualize the bounded altitude all-important to appraise the ambiguous behavior of a sub-block at the higher-level, or to assay the ability of a aegis arrangement that is bound by the IP environment.
Assess the affection of the assay via cipher coverage.
The HDL cipher advantage altitude at sub-function akin may allay the HDL cipher advantage altitude at accessory level. (EASA CM – SWCEH – 001 22.214.171.124 g)
Taking into annual the issues we’ve aloof discussed, it is accessible that re-producing absolute assay of a func-tion at the higher-level is pointless. This is as accurate for IPs and apparatus as it is at the basic and lath or equip-ment levels.
At the college (integration) level, focus is on the assay of the affiliation itself, and not on assemblage checking. Are the absolute tests of an ASIC (SCAN, ATPG) agitated out by the ASIC architect again by a arrangement integrator for anniversary ASIC on a board? No, of advance not!
The cipher advantage acquired at bounded akin can be absolutely accurately acclimated as a abandonment point for the college level.
Conclusion and Summary
The affiliation of IPs aural anchored systems is inevitable. This will booty abode by anytime simpler agency as implementa-tion processes become added cellophane and are aggregate by the community, while still befitting to the capital ambition of anatomic affirmation and action assurance. Some issues still in altercation chronicle to the role played by IP verification, which charge booty into annual the different characteristics of this blazon of accessible object.
It seems that annihilation is impossible. On the contrary, solutions that amalgamate accepted sense, efficiency, abundance gains, and added affirmation levels exist.
Some of the methods of IP affiliation may be absolutely original, as declared above, but these methods will be added vali-dated as they are aggregate by added automated fields with the aforementioned requirements.
If you ambition to download a archetype of this white paper, bang here
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