Alfred J Bennett
30 October 2021
Prospectus Final Document
Introduction and Purpose
At the end of WWII, there was a change in the way authors presented actual about sexuality. The Post WWII era through the 1960s produced abstract that discussed the marginalization of those in the LGBTQ communities. After works by Allen Ginsberg, James Baldwin, and Patricia Highsmith would advice to lay the foundation for approaching animal rights movements. This cardboard will dive into these authors, accurately their works, because they are altered in that they pushed amusing boundaries apropos sexuality, which accepted to be a disruption in the time of McCarthyism.
America was alteration socially, educationally, legally, and politically, affective abroad from the acceptable ancestors archetypal into a added assorted ancestors arduous the laws that administer society. The government approved to bottle and ascendancy bodies through new laws, socially and on an educational platform. In Joanne Meyerowitz’s commodity entitled The Liberal 1950s? Reinterpreting Postwar American Animal Culture, she states, “Americans saw amoral animal behavior as a alarming antecedent of moral decline” (295). Meyerowitz is adage that abounding conservatives capital to bottle the American Dream. Senator McCarthy and his bourgeois thoughts disconnected the earlier and adolescent ancestors on family, politics, art, and sexuality. McCarthy was on a accessible witch coursing for those who sympathized with communists; abundant like Hitler, he approved to banish those who did not accommodate to his accurate account about befitting America Pure.
There were acknowledged ramifications for those men or women who either came out as homosexual or were anticipation to be homosexual; Gerard Sullivan, in his commodity advantaged Bigotry and Self-Conception of Homosexuals Before The Gay Liberation Movement, argues homosexuality in the 1950s and 1960s, attractive at the animality as homosexuals are dangerous. He states, “a alternation of political campaigns of bigotry adjoin gay bodies was conducted in the United States at the federal, state, and bounded levels of government. In each… campaign, attempts were fabricated to portray homosexuals as aberrant and alarming to society” (203). Attention the acceptable ancestors assemblage was a blackmail to association and acceptable amusing norms to the blow of society.
Furthermore, “[t]his credo fueled and justified the abominable practices advocated by the campaigns, which were agitated out in allotment to acknowledge attitude ethics to anticipate amusing change” (203). Campaigns declared aloft were aloof some of the bigotry accustomed adjoin homosexuals; ads like “Boys Beware a 1950s Antigay video” accustomed that gay men were ailing in apperception and were out to abduction little boys as their prey. This was acclimated as advertising appear homosexuals in the 1950’s. I will alone advertence this video as advertising to appearance the bigotry acclimated to alarm bodies about those who pursued relationships with addition of the aforementioned sex. Furthermore, this affectionate of video that the Catholic abbey supported, appropriately accepting ramifications that would eventually advance to agony to the psyche. This resulted in gay men gluttonous accidental relationships that they kept buried while actuality affected to digest into American Society; eventually, this beard of their female would advance gay men to arrangement HIV, which causes AIDS.
Much of this bigotry and acknowledged activity adjoin homosexuals was primarily due to attention the nuclear family: the archetypal American Dream, a abode with a white blockade fence, and 2.5 children. Women were declared to be like the mom from “Leave it To Beaver” or “Father Knows Best,” but abounding Post-WW-II women were affective abroad from that archetypal and capital to assay their female and booty on commonly roles men. In his commodity advantaged “The Nuclear Ancestors Was a Mistake,” David Brooks provided an all-embracing attending into this 1950s and 1960s ambiance breadth the woman was accepted to break home while the man worked. He goes on to state, “ In these years, a affectionate of band formed about this blazon of family—what McCall’s, the arch women’s annual of the day, alleged “togetherness.” Healthy bodies lived in two-parent families. In a 1957 survey, added than bisected of the respondents said that bachelor bodies were ‘sick,’ ‘immoral,’ or ‘neurotic’” (57). Brooks brings into the altercation that people, in general, begin those who were not affiliated to be sick; thus, this leads added into our altercation of why bodies appearance homosexuality as a sickness; appropriately it was alone accurate by the witch coursing brought on my religious organizations, Accompaniment and Bounded Governments.
However, these bourgeois account were arduous the adolescent generations, for abounding post-WW-II women, alive in factories assuming assignment their husbands already did gave them a aftertaste of freedom. The role of the acceptable housewife was advancing to an end. Women larboard the abode and lept into the workforce, appropriately alteration the activating amid men and women. The representations of Gender and Female in Post WWII abstract helps to ascertain a bearing of adolescent bodies who will affect new ancestors to accomplish a attitude for justice.
Brooks additionally brings into ablaze the bigotry appear women. He makes an altercation and states:
“For one thing, best women were relegated to the home. Abounding corporations, able-bodied into the mid-20th century, barred affiliated women from employment: Companies would appoint distinct women, but they would accept to abdicate if [they] got married. Demeaning and disempowering analysis of women was rampant. Women spent astronomic numbers of hours trapped central the home beneath their husband’s headship, adopting children”. (57)
This is an archetype of marginalization, breadth it was ok for women to assignment while they were single, but already they were married, they were accepted to be afflicted afterwards a articulation while the man took affliction of the family. There is commodity to say about this affectionate of analysis of women; they are accustomed abandon and again affected into bastille afterwards marriage. Women were not actuality advised adequately and were not accepted to accept a voice. This is why it is analytical to attending at Patricia Highsmith’s book Price of Salt; not alone are we attractive at her book from the homosexual lens, but we are attractive at the ramifications of her dispatch out of her alliance and how association would appearance her behavior.
The authors mentioned aloft abode female from altered perspectives. However, these three authors abode a accepted affair of homosexuality, absorption my analysis and all-embracing affair for this paper. Until 1973 homosexuality was anticipation to be a brainy illness, in a bookish commodity accounting by Charles Silverstein entitled, “Are You Adage Homosexuality is Normal?” Silverstein says, “December 15, 1973. On that date, the Board of Trustees of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) appear that homosexuality had been removed as a brainy ataxia per se from its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. It was the best important accomplishment of the Gay Liberation Movement” (277). However, this was an capital advance in LGBTQ rights as abounding conservatives still beheld homosexuality as dangerous. There were abounding speculations as to why homosexuality was advised dangerous. However, one of the capital account is why homosexuality was perceived as a prowling alienated crisis aback the United States dealt with astronomic civic changes. The ascent all-overs of the bourgeois affair acicular that homosexuals were angry to communism. So for an columnist like Allen Ginsberg to appear out as a gay macho in this time was alarming and adventurous and arduous civic norms.
Allan Ginsberg was a insubordinate and gay man who had no problems talking about his sexuality. Ginsberg sets a antecedence for added authors like James Baldwin and Patricia Highsmith to appear advanced and allocution about sexuality. The accident that led added authors to address and allocution about their female was Allan Ginsberg’s abomination balloon about his composition “Howl.” The base for the balloon was a law anesthetized in 1873 alleged “The Comstock Act.” Brandon R. Burnette autograph for “The Aboriginal Alteration Encyclopedia,” defines the law. He states, “The Comstock Act of 1873 fabricated it actionable to accelerate “obscene, bawdy or lascivious,” “immoral,” or “indecent” publications through the mail. The law additionally fabricated it a abomination for anyone to sell, accord away, or acquire an obscene book, pamphlet, picture, drawing, or advertisement” (Burnette ). For the administrator of “Howl,” Lawrence Ferlinghetti, who endemic City Ablaze Book, had burst the law. Howl, which we will dive into after in talks about absolute acts of sex, including heterosexual and homosexual activities. Burnette additionally states, “An act for the Suppression [and] [a] admeasurement to anticipate abomination and bribery of children” (Burnette). Senator McCarthy acclimated a law like this as advantage in his witch coursing of altered people, authoritative Ginsberg a bearing leader. To bigger accept these authors and what they stood for, it is best to assay them through a feminist/gender-based lens and use the psychoanalytical lens to abutment evidence-based claims that these authors afflicted the arcane apple with their writing.
Discussions centered about guilt, ambiguity, and self-discovery, will be the primary focus for these texts. For example, James Baldwin grew up in a actual religious family. Like abounding writers, Baldwin confused abroad from the United States and to Paris to access his writing. While alive in Paris, “he began to embrace his sexuality” (UKE essays), which would again admit his acquaintance into his writing; one of the primary texts that will be advised is Giovanni’s Room. Baldwin uses his beck of alertness (SOC) to acquiesce his readers into his apperception and affecting adventure breadth answerability brought on by his religious accomplishments had him analytic his sexuality. We will additionally see these aforementioned repetitive patterns in Allan Ginsberg’s Howl and Patricia Highsmith’s Price of Salt. These will be the primary sources to advice analyze how female was approached in anniversary decade and why this anarchy was created in how we anticipate about female in society.
Rationale and Professional Objectives
My arcane interests circumduct about feminism, sexuality, psychoanalytic, and Historicism. I adore discussing feminism and literature, analytical how abstract has afflicted throughout history to reflect women differently, and the aforementioned abstraction shows how a male-dominated association oppresses women’s voices. This is alone causing added issues aural said association because women should be accustomed to accept a voice. However, aback discussing feminism now added than ever, it is adamantine to leave female and gender out of the conversation. There is a charge for amplitude in the classroom in a world-changing based on race, racism, sexuality, and culture. Some acceptance from altered cultural backgrounds accept been cloistral and, based on their culture, may not see women’s issues, gender, female the way others do, so we charge use history to appearance how the apple has afflicted and how issues like women in the abode and alike female afflicted through specific movements which laid the foundation for added cogent animal rights movements.
The assignment I do actuality will after advice me as I plan to advise college-level abstract and autograph courses. I appetite to acquaint my students, advice them become vers in literature, and betrayal them to how history impacted authors’ writing. Showing that abstract is like any added art anatomy like dance, painting, pottery, one can simulate a brushstroke or an addendum in ball through words. Moreover, what I appetite for my approaching acceptance is to accept that we accept been accepted assertive freedoms that set us afar from added countries, and acquirements to accomplish a classroom all-embracing is capital as we abide to brainwash the minds of the abutting generations.
Contribution to Existing Scholarship
In this paper, I will abide my analysis on feminism and assay the base of female apropos to Post-WW-II abstract and abstract of the 1950s and 1960s. My primary focus has been on feminism throughout my academy career, and as I accept affable added into Post-WW-II abstract and mid-twentieth-century literature, I accept begin that the autograph begins to alteration into a political articulation surrounding animal rights. While I apperceive that abundant analysis has been done in this specific area, I apperceive that my addition will attending accurately at how the Post-WW-II bearing and the 1950s and 1960s ancestors began to advance aback adjoin acceptable association and the nuclear ancestors unit. Women capital to be heard and not beneath the continued arm of the law ‘their husbands’; those women capital a articulation to be heard in society. Bodies were freer with their female and capital to appear out of ambuscade and be who they were; they, too, capital a voice. Through my voice, I will accord to these arguments by assuming how Allan Ginsberg, Patricia Highsmith, and James Baldwin contributes to the foundation on which some of the best arresting animal rights arguments would become a cogent allotment of American History and set the accent for approaching ancestors to action for the appropriate to according rights based on gender and sexuality.
I. Examine how Post-WW-II association began to change in how adolescent individuals looked at sexuality.
II. Examine the acceptable nuclear ancestors and what was expected—examining gender roles aural the marriage.
A. Use Patricia Highsmith’s Price of Salt as an archetype of the acceptable ancestors unit.
B. Bring account to the altercation for why those who did not fit into this archetypal would be advised sick.
C. Address Homosexuality and the advertising acclimated adjoin them in the 1950s, creating a association of panic.
III. Examining Allan Ginsberg, an accessible Homosexual male, and the ramifications of his accessible sexuality.
A. Talk about his accessible assignment Howl the use of SOC and why this allotment of assignment was advised filthy
B. Talk about the Ginsbergs balloon and the furnishings that it would accept on added generations.
C. Examining how Ginsberg’s assignment precipitated amusing change.
IV. Examining Patrician Highsmith Price of Salt
A. Study how Highsmith uses her characters SOC to appearance how she acquainted bound in her marriage.
B. Examining Highsmith’s appearance animal analysis as she becomes a lesbian
C. Studying the furnishings of her accommodation on her female and how those decisions became repercussions with her child.
V. Examining James Baldwin’s Book Giovanni’s Room How actuality African American and Gay afflicted gay men of his generation.
A. Studying cultural aspects of this book and its elements that chronicle to how association beheld atramentous gay men
B. Having to adumbrate oneself in the closet to fit into society, what can Baldwin’s book acquaint us.
C. The cultural implications of actuality atramentous and gay
VI. Examining how actuality gay and in the closet actualize trama to the anima application all three books to altercate this element.
Annotated Works Cited
Brooks, David. “The Nuclear Ancestors Was a Mistake.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 19 Mar. 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2020/03/the-nuclear-family-was-a-mistake/605536/. Accessed 30 October 2021.
The commodity is accordant to my analysis because it discusses the acceptable ancestors and gives a abrupt history of the nuclear ancestors in the 1950s and 1960s. I acquisition this accordant because this is the blazon of ancestors that acquainted threatened by homosexuals. Women were assassin in the workforce until they were married, and already affiliated or pregnant, they were again accursed and affected into the home. There was a accurate anatomy that was to be followed by women. I additionally acquisition this accordant because, in Patricia High Smith’s book advantaged Price of Salt, her capital character, who has stepped abroad from her alliance and collapsed in adulation with a woman, the adolescent is taken abroad because of her sexuality. Bodies anticipation that those not affiliated were strange, a abundant altered apple than we alive in today; however, abounding of us can acknowledge these individuals for laying a foundation for individuality.
Burnette, Brandon R. “The Aboriginal Alteration Encyclopedia Presented By The John Seigenthaler Chair Of Excellence In Aboriginal Alteration Studies.” Comstock Act of 1873, https://www.mtsu.edu/first-amendment/article/1038/comstock-act-of-1873. Accessed 22 October 2021.
It is capital to accept the laws of the time, so I absitively to use this law back it will administer accurately to Allen Ginsberg. Diving Added into the 1950s and assuming how America was still blame adjoin change through the use of Laws that were to assure bodies from lude actual like pornography. However, about what the law was accomplishing was suppressing bodies and demography abroad their aboriginal alteration rights.
Canning, Richard. “What Allen Ginsberg Told His Friends.” The Gay & Lesbian Review, 26 Apr. 2021, https://glreview.org/article/article-77/. Accessed 22 October 2021.
This commodity touches on Allan Ginsberg and his female aback advancing out of the closet was alarming for many. It was a time aback a affectionate association bedeviled by adoration could accelerate a actuality for accepting animal relations with addition of the aforementioned gender either in a brainy academy or, depending on the severity of the crime, in jail. Ginsberg was a rebel, and this was apparent in his composition “Howl,” talking about sex, both heterosexual and Homosexual, placed him in a position to be annoyed of his aesthetic material. While conservatives did not see it that way, it showed a new bearing how courage and suppressed choir could change.
Davis, Sid. 1950s Education “Boys Beware” – Youtube. Youtube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmqNiFJyI28. Accessed 30 October 2021.
This was acclimated as advertising appear homosexuals in the 1950’s. I will alone advertence this video as advertising to appearance the bigotry acclimated to alarm bodies about those who pursued relationships with addition of the aforementioned sex. Furthermore, this affectionate of video that the Catholic abbey supported, appropriately accepting ramifications that would eventually advance to agony to the psyche. This resulted in gay men gluttonous accidental relationships that they kept buried while actuality affected to digest into American Society; eventually, this promiscuity and beard of their female would advance gay men to arrangement HIV, which causes AIDS.
Joel E. Black. “Ferlinghetti on Trial: The <em>Howl</Em> Court Case and Juvenile Delinquency.” Boom: A Journal of California, vol. 2, no. 4, University of California Press, 2012, pp. 27–43, https://doi.org/10.1525/boom.2012.2.4.27. Accessed 22 October 2021.
This commodity takes a abutting attending into the abomination balloon of the administrator of ‘Howl” Lawrence Ferlinghetti this accurate balloon was conducted by the Juvenile Division of the San Francisco Badge Department. They calm copies of the “Howl” and again arrested and answerable the Owner/Publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti and produced atrocious material. The balloon began in 1957, and Ferlinghetti was represented by the ACLU and eventually was exonerated. This balloon could be looked at as the animal anarchy and the apostasy of artists of the Beat Generation. Moreover, this cardboard reflects the adjustment of artists in a post-war America, which lingers about politics, conservatism, radicalism, censorship, and abuse of the aesthetic voice.
Meyerowitz, Joanne. The Liberal 1950s? Reinterpreting Postwar American Animal Culture. Yale University, https://history.yale.edu/sites/default/files/CV/wyrtzencv12016full.pdf. Accessed 18 October 2021.
How America came to become what it is today is all about the history of the country. Back I am absorption on Post-WW-II, I anticipate it is capital to altercate the acceptation WW-II had on the adolescent bearing and sexuality. The accent of animal abnegation of the postwar era is accordant to why bodies like Allen Ginsberg, Patricia Highsmith, and James Baldwin began to allege out adjoin attitude and generally Victorian angle about sexuality. Meyerowitz states, “ May adopted the chat “containment” from the Cold War adopted action and repositioned it as a broader postwar cultural appearance that activated as able-bodied to gender and sexuality” (295). I altercate that ascendancy was cogent because as women traded in their aprons for briefcases and a activity alfresco the home, some acquainted that such behavior was unacceptable. However, ascendancy actuality additionally agency that bodies were abashed of change and the alone way to anticipate change was to accomplish laws to accumulate bodies at bay while befitting America as bourgeois as possible. The conservatives saw assertive behavior like sexually alive women and homosexuality as a blackmail and alarming behavior that would aftermath a moral abatement in America.
Ltd, All Answers. “Themes of Answerability and Female in James Baldwin’s ‘Giovanni’s Room.’” UK Essays, UK Essays, 12 Aug. 2021, https://www.ukessays.com/essays/literature/themes-of-guilt-and-sexuality-in-james-balwins-giovannis-room.php. Accessed 18 October 2021.
The afterward commodity is an all-embracing attending into the answerability acquainted by abounding men and women who were LGBTQ. Specifically, this commodity deals with James Baldwin’s atypical Giovanni’s Room. In the 1950s, during the Cold War and McCarthyism, authors and artists fled the States and confused to Europe to advance their skills. Some like Baldwin acclimated this as a adventure of about-face in which to ascertain themselves. The commodity discusses Baldwin’s aboriginal activity and growing up in a religious family; that accomplishments transfers into his atypical and the answerability accustomed for accepting relations of the aforementioned gender. Aback account Baldwin’s novel, the clairvoyant can attending into his SOC, and his character’s thoughts are affirmation of his experiences.
Rehlaender, Jamie L. “A Howl of Free Expression: The 1957 Howl Abomination Balloon …” Https://Pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/Cgi/Viewcontent.cgi?Article=1065&Context=Younghistorians, Accessed 22 October 2021.
This commodity discusses the balloon of Allen Ginsberg’s composition “Howl.” This is accurately capital aback discussing Ginsberg because he was a man who was abrupt about his female aback acknowledged and medical after-effects could accept a astounding appulse on someone’s life. “Howl” was a acute allotment of arcane achievement, and it challenged Americans and their account about sexuality, art, abandon of speech. It was the alpha of a adventure that bodies are still angry today, and that is equality. The commodity brings laws that were meant to abolish the choir of individuals like Ginsberg and alike women. An earlier bearing was aggravating to argue bodies that sex was an act amid a man and a woman; therefore, annihilation alfresco of coition was unacceptable. This commodity makes for some acknowledging affirmation and account as to why Ginsberg was accordant in laying a foundation for approaching generations.
Silverstein, Charles. “Are You Adage Homosexuality Is Normal?” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Brainy Health, vol. 12, no. 3, 2008, pp. 277–287. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/19359700802111635. Accessed 22 October 2021
When discussing the rights of individuals and sexuality, it is capital to accept that bodies who were accepting sex with associates of the aforementioned sex for the longest time were advised mentally ill. Some still feel that this is accurate and feel the science abaft the accommodation to bead homosexuality as a brainy affliction is not abundant to absolve abatement it from the books. I begin this commodity absorbing in that it applies and supports my altercation that Ginsberg, in particular, could accept been answerable will adulterous acts or served time in bastille abundant like Oscar Wild had because he abandoned laws in abode at the time. While Ginsberg was not the alone macho biographer of his time who approached female in such a way, he aggressive others to appear out, eventually arch to added ancestors boot for their abandon and axiological animal rights to be recognized.
Sullivan, Gerard. “Discrimination and Self-Concept of Homosexuals Before the Gay Liberation Movement: A Biographical Analysis Analytical Amusing Context and Identity.” Biography, vol. 13, no. 3, University of Hawai’i Press, 1990, pp. 203–21, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23539517. Accessed 30 October 2021.
The primary purpose of this certificate is to altercate homosexuality in the 1950s and 1960s, attractive at the animality as homosexuals are dangerous. Attention the acceptable ancestors assemblage was a blackmail to association and acceptable amusing norms to the blow of society. This led to witch hunts and badge bigotry and harassment; bodies absent their jobs due to these witch hunts. The bigotry of homosexuals causes a cogent bulk of affair in their association and, through the psychoanalytic lens, will betrayal those furnishings that it has on the community.
How To Write A History Thesis – How To Write A History Thesis
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