Welcome to the Solana messaging app quest. With this adventure you’ll get upto acceleration with the best rapidly ascent blockchain in the market: Solana. It would be alarming if you apperceive a bit of Blight or C already and are accustomed with how blockchains work, but alike if you do not acquire any specific accomplishments of Blight or Solana development, we will acquire all bases covered. If you acquire a aerial akin of absorption and motivation, we should be acceptable to go ahead.
In this quest, we will be developing a blockchain based time-capsule. This about agency that you’ll be able to leave a bulletin on the Solana blockchain and anyone can appearance it for as continued as the Solana blockchain itself exists. Your bulletin will survive the analysis of time and could not be taken bottomward by anyone.
This time-capsule adventure will set us up for extending this activity and creating an absolute messaging app. How air-conditioned is that, right?
There are a few things that we charge to get up and active afore we move advanced in this quest. Afore we move advanced accomplish abiding you’ve a alive NodeJS ambiance set up. We charge rust, Solana, Mocha(a JS testing framework), Ballast and Phantom wallet for this quest. To install rust, run
To install Solana, run
To install mocha globally, run
Now we’ll be installing Anchor. If you’re on a linux system, run
Fair Warning : If you are appliance a Windows system, we awful advance appliance WSL2 (Windows sub-system for Linux) or switching to a Linux environment. Setting up WSL is additionally quick and easy. A acceptable walk-through can be begin actuality For any added OS, you charge to body from source. Run the afterward command
To verify that Ballast is installed, run
Since Solana is still a appealing new blockchain compared to the establised ones out there, it’s developer applique too is appealing bound and bulky as of now. However, it is rapidly convalescent and it does so on a circadian basis. At the beginning of this development is Anchor, by Armani Ferrante. You can anticipate of it like the Ruby on Rails framework for Ruby, that agency yes, you can advance things on boilerplate Ruby, but Ruby on Rails makes your activity abundant abundant easier, right? That’s the aforementioned with Ballast and Solana development. Ballast is the Hardhat of Solana development added abundant more. It offers a Blight DSL (basically, an easier Rust) to assignment with forth with IDL, CLI and workspace management.
The aboriginal command you should run on your terminal (assuming Solana CLI was appropriately installed in the aftermost quest) is:
This should bandy up a aftereffect agnate to article like:
If you didnot set up your keypair earlier, afresh you won’t be accepting the Keypair Path in your results. To set that up, chase the instructions over here
We would appetite to abide on the bounded arrangement for architecture our affairs and afterwards about-face to the devent or mainnet-beta if required. If the RPC URL acreage of your aftermost aftereffect did not appearance localhost, you can set it to localhost appliance the afterward command:
Next, we would appetite to apperceive our account/wallet abode and airdrop some SOL tokens into it, to handle all the deployment, affairs etc costs that appear with interacting with and appliance a Solana program. To do that aboriginal let’s acquisition our address. The command to do that is:
This would aftereffect into article like this:
Then, for added absolute capacity of your account, use the afterward command with the abode that you got from the aftermost command
This would aftereffect into article like this:
Next, we appetite to circuit up our bounded network. Anticipate of this bounded arrangement as a apish Solana blockchain active on your own distinct system. This arrangement would be appropriate for development and testing of our program. To circuit it up, in a abstracted tab, use the afterward command:
Once you get an image, like the one below, you apperceive that your bounded validator (local network) is now up and running
Now, our aftermost assignment is to top up our annual with some SOL, which you can do by using:
This should aftereffect in article like:
In this sub-quest all we would do is initialize an Ballast activity and see whether everything’s there and alive accomplished or not and afterwards move on advanced to accomplish our own changes. Arch over to your adopted destination for the activity appliance your terminal and afresh blazon the afterward command:
This would aftereffect in a awning somewhat agnate to this:
First we analysis whether we can see the programs, app, programs, migrations agenda amid others or not. If we can, we would arch over to programs/messengerapp/src/lib.rs to see the absence affairs that Ballast provides us. This is the best basal archetype accessible on Ballast and what’s accident actuality is artlessly that a user-defined activity Initialize whenever alleged would auspiciously avenue the program. That’s all, annihilation fancy. Now, let’s try to abridge this affairs appliance the afterward command:
This would activate a body activity and would article like this aloft completion:
Next, to absolutely run these tests, aboriginal arch over to the tab area you ran the solana-test-validator command and annihilate that activity (using Ctrl-C). Now, use the afterward command:
The casual tests should aftereffect in the afterward screen:
Now, let’s arch over to the programs agenda afresh and alpha authoritative changes to actualize our messaging app.
Head over to programs/messengerapp/src/lib.rs and bright the cipher accounting there afar from the macro declarations and crates (libraries) that we will be using. Afterwards the clearning, your coding awning should attending somehting like this:
Now let us artlessly ascertain two functions that we will be appliance in our Solana program. The aggregate of the affairs goes in a bore beneath the #[program] macro. We’ll aloof ascertain them beneath the pub mod messengerapp and address the argumentation later. These two activity definitions would attending like this:
Here pub agency accessible and fn agency function, implying that they are accessible functions that can be invoked from our program, ie it becomes a client-callable affairs function. The aboriginal altercation of these functions is consistently Context<T> which abide of the solana accounts arrangement and the affairs ID, which in aspect is the appropriate abstracts to alarm aloof about any progarm on Solana. The abutting constant of both these functions is a Cord alleged data, which we will be appliance as our message. The ProgramResult is the acknowledgment blazon of both these functions, which absolutely is aloof an easier adjustment to serve activity after-effects and/or errors.
After defining the aloft two functions, your cipher should attending article like this:
Now, let’s address our argumentation for the initialize function, ok? Let’s aboriginal accomplish our intentions bright for this activity and the affairs in general. We appetite to accumulate clue of two things here. First, is the abstracts that is actuality anesthetized while calling the activity and the added is the annual of all the data(messages) that acquire been anesthetized to our specific account. So, we would appetite our capital annual (the annual that will handle all the messaging actuality of the program) to acquire two fields, one for autumn the admission abstracts and the added for befitting a almanac of all beforehand data. We alarm this annual the base_account. Also, accumulate in apperception that aback we will be abacus to the data_list everytime a new abstracts is introduced, we will charge the annual to be mutable, ie, the annual should be able to acquire changes. Address the afterward argumentation central the initialize activity now:
The Ok(()) syntax is acclimated for absurdity administration of the ProgramResult type. You can anticipate of Ok(()) like a gate, that lets the affairs abide if there are no errors but sends the affairs into addition accompaniment if an absurdity is encountered.
Now, your coding awning should attending article like this:
A baby agenda about Accounts on Solana: An annual is not absolutely a wallet. Instead, it’s a way for the arrangement to abide abstracts amid calls. This includes advice such as the calculation in our base_account, and additionally advice about permissions on the account. Accounts pay hire in the anatomy of lamports, and if it runs out, afresh the annual is purged from the blockchain. Accounts with two years annual of hire absorbed are “rent-exempt” and can break on the alternation forever.
In the aftermost sub-quest we authentic the amend function, right? Now let’s go advanced and address the argumentation for this function.
Your cipher awning should now attending like this:
Wasn’t this funny? We wrote the aforementioned cipher again, right? Well, yes, the argumentation of both the functions were aforementioned and the alone absolute aberration is in the Annual central of the Context<> struct. This is a simple alembic for the currently active program_id all-encompassing over Accounts. This about is what would differentiate amid whether the bulletin advancing in our affairs is the aboriginal bulletin or some afterwards messages. Now, the accustomed catechism would be area are all these structs defined? Calm down, champ. We haven’t yet authentic them, but that is absolutely what we will be accomplishing next.
Let’s aboriginal ascertain the Initialize struct acclimated in our initialize activity that we authentic two sub-quests back. We already acquire gone over what Accounts and Context are. So, actuality aloof accumulate in apperception that whenever we charge to accommodate assorted accounts in a struct, we would use the acquire Accounts macro, which is #[derive(Accounts)], basically aback we appetite to acquire an annual to canyon to the activity appliance added accounts, we use the acquire accounts macro and while defining a atypical annual we would artlessly use the accustomed annual macro, which is [account]. Now the accustomed annual marco can additionally abide of abounding ambit which denote the permissions accompanying to that accurate annual and we will attending into those as we move ahead. Address the afterward cipher into your editor:
As discussed earlier, we acclimated the acquire Accounts macro aback we had to absorb 3 accounts actuality and for all these three accounts individually, we acclimated the annual macro. Now assimilate the arguments acclimated with these macros. The init macro is acclimated to actualize a new annual endemic by the accepted affairs which is our messengerapp program. Whenever init constant is used, we charge consistently specify the payer or the annual that will be advantageous for conception of the annual on the Solana blockchain, forth with the amplitude param which is the amplitude with which the new annual is created.
The mut constant marks an annual as mutable, which about agency our annual will be adapted and Solana will charge to amend the abstracts in your account. So, consistently use the mut constant for constant changes.
Another new absorption acclimated actuality is the Attestant type. This is acclimated to accomplish the coercion that the ascendancy annual (messengerapp in this case) active the transaction.
The appropriate affair you ability apprehension actuality is that the base_account acreage is of blazon BaseAccount, but that BaseAccount is not to be begin anywhere, right? As always, we will be defining that in aloof the abutting sub-quest. So authority on and re-read all the advice that you aloof recieved if you feel the need. In the abutting sub-quest we will be defining the Amend and BaseAccount structs.
Your coding awning should attending like this appropriate now:
You can apprehend up on altered types of annual constraints here.
With the compassionate about all kinds of Annual marcos and the associated ambit with them, let’s get beeline into autograph the added two annual structs.
and now the final BaseAccount struct:
Now, for the Amend annual struct, we apprehension that it is about the aforementioned as the Initialize annual struct, it’s aloof that we are appliance an absolute acreage base_account of blazon BaseAccount and not creating it. Afterwards which, we ascertain the BaseAccount that was actuality acclimated everywhere. As discussed earlier, it has two fields, one is abstracts of blazon Cord to abundance the admission amount of the bulletin while the added is a agent of strings to store/persist all the letters in that account. A agent is a annual of elements with no defined size. But, buck in apperception that initially we had createed our abject annual with the amplitude of 64 64 so there will be a absolute to thow abounding letters can be stored. You can analyze the banned at altered sizes as a ancillary quest.
After autograph these definitions, your cipher awning should be attractive article like this:
Good, now we are aloof one footfall abroad from actuality absolutely done with the acute arrangement (programs in Solana lingo) ancillary of our project.
Remember the declare_id! macro of our affairs that was declared at the top with a accidental attractive string, that we did not allocution about? It is time to fix that. Currently, it looks article like this:
Since, we already discussed that we would be alive on our bounded network, we charge to arrange our affairs on our bounded arrangement and afresh put the program_id recieved from there actuality at this macro. Aboriginal accomplish abiding that your bounded validator is active in a altered tab. If it is not, run it afresh in a altered tab appliance the solana-test-validator command. Now use the afterward command to arrange your ballast program:
The aloft command should aftereffect in a awning agnate to this:
Now, archetype the affairs ID from the aloft achievement to the declare_id macro in our program. Article like this:
Congratulations, we are now done with autograph the programs of our project. You aloof completed the acute arrangement (programs in Solana lingo) ancillary of the Time Abridged activity 😀
Head over to tests/messengerapp.js and annul aggregate that’s accounting there. We are activity to be autograph our tests from scratch. The aboriginal footfall would be to acceptation the all-important libraries and constants. To do that, use the afterward code:
Now, aback we will be appliance Mocha for testing our programs, we will actualize the skeleton of area we will be putting our tests. So, basically, how Mocha works is that it takes alarm blocks as testing blocks and aural those alarm blocks there are abundant tests accounting appliance the it blocks. So, use the afterward cipher to actualize the skeleton:
Now, your cipher awning should attending article like:
The added things that we coded there were the addition of provider. The provider is the absorption of a affiliation to the Solana network. In the test, the Ballast framework will actualize the provider for us based on the ambiance (anchor.Provider.env()).
Now, the affairs is an absorption that combines the Provider, idl, and the programID (which is generated aback the affairs is built) and allows us to alarm RPC methods adjoin our program.
When we acquire these two things, we can alpha calling functions in our program, which is what we will be accomplishing in our abutting sub-quest.
The adjustment to alarm the functions of our affairs is appealing straight-forward. We will use the affairs RPCs (Remote activity calls) to admission the activity and afresh we will use the web3.js library to actualize accounts which acquire to be anesthetized as the ambit to those functions. Let’s aboriginal jump into the cipher of our aboriginal analysis and see things in action.
Now, what we acquire done in the cipher aloft is artlessly actualize a baseAccount by breeding a new annual appliance the web3 library. Afresh appliance the affairs RPC, we acquire alleged the initialize activity and to that activity we acquire supplied the appropriate parameters, which were the baseAccount, user, systemProgram and the signer.
After this activity is run, we artlessly charge to grab authority of the baseAccount and analysis it’s abstracts acreage and verify whether it has afflicted to My aboriginal bulletin or not. To do that, we use the afterward curve of code:
After this, your coding awning should attending like this:
What we did actuality aback the baseAccount from the affairs afterwards the initialize activity has been run and abundance it in a capricious alleged account. Afresh we analysis whether the abstracts acreage of annual is the aforementioned as our bulletin or not. In the aftermost step, we save the accompaniment of this baseAccount in a capricious alleged _baseAccount, so that we can analysis that afterwards in the added tests.
Now let us address the added test, area we amend the advanced created baseAccount which we stored in _baseAccount and analysis whether new letters get stored in the data_list acreage or not.
As mentioned in the aftermost quest, our cold with this analysis is to amend the data_list acreage of the baseAccount and afresh verify this updation. To do that, we will address the beneath code:
With the aloft code, we assigned the _baseAccount to a new baseAccount. This footfall can be skipped. Afterwards that, aloof like how we alleged the initialize activity earlier, we alleged the amend activity and provided it with the appropriate params, which are the new bulletin and the baseAccount. Afterwards that to verify whether the amend took abode or not, we will use the afterward code:
With this, your coding awning should attending article like this:
The console.logs can be skipped, but they are there for our own bigger understanding. So, in this block of code, we afresh aback the baseAccount afterwards the amend activity and analysis whether the abstracts of the annual has been adapted or not. Afresh we book the capacity of the annual itself, afresh the absolute annual of all the letters and assuredly we analysis whether the breadth of this data_list acreage of the baseAccount is 2 or not (since it should alluringly accommodate [My aboriginal message, My added message]).
With this we are done autograph our tests, now all that charcoal is to absolutely run these tests.
Remember, some time aback we afflicted the program_id in the declare_id macro of our program? We will chase a agnate footfall in the Anchor.toml book now. Open the Anchor.toml book and alter the old program_id with the new program_id, like so:
Now, it’s the moment of truth. Arch over to the animate and blazon the afterward command if you acquire not chock-full the solana-test-validator active in a altered tab:
This will hopefully accord a aftereffect agnate to this:
And if this didn’t assignment for you go to your bounded validator tab and abutting it appliance Ctrl C and afterwards appear aback to the tab area you were testing and blazon the afterward command:
This should crop a aftereffect agnate to:
Congratulations on not alone architecture the architecture blocks of a babble appliance on Solana, which you can use as time-capsule on the blockchain, but additionally auspiciously testing that. In the abutting quest, we can go on advanced to see how to affix the front-end of a website with our affairs and see for ourselves how able-bodied our affairs is working. See you all anon 🙂
How To Write A Function In C++ Programing – How To Write A Function In C++ Programing
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