SAS/GRAPH software produces abounding kinds of charts, plots, and maps in both two- and three-dimensional versions. In accession to allowance you accept the array of graphs that are accessible to you, these descriptions will additionally advice you accept the actual blazon of blueprint for your abstracts and point you to the adapted chapter.

SAS/GRAPH software uses the GCHART action to aftermath archive that graphically represent the bulk of a accomplishment for one or added variables in a SAS abstracts set. See The GCHART Action for a complete description.

Block archive use three-dimensional blocks to graphically represent ethics of statistics. Block archive are advantageous for emphasizing about magnitudes and differences amid abstracts values.

Horizontal bar archive use accumbent confined to represent statistics based on the ethics of one or added variables. Accumbent bar archive can accomplish a table of blueprint statistics and are advantageous for announcement exact magnitudes and emphasizing differences.

Vertical bar archive use vertical confined to represent statistics based on the ethics of one or added variables. Vertical bar charts, which accomplish alone one statistic, are advantageous for announcement exact magnitudes and emphasizing differences.

Pie charts, 3-D Pie charts, and Donut archive use the bend of pie slices to graphically represent the bulk of a accomplishment for a abstracts range. Pie archive are advantageous for analytical how the ethics of a capricious accord to the accomplished and for comparing the ethics of several variables.

Star archive use the breadth of spines to graphically represent the bulk of a accomplishment for a abstracts range. Star archive are advantageous for allegory breadth abstracts are out of balance.

SAS/GRAPH software uses the GPLOT action to aftermath two-dimensional graphs that artifice one or added abased variables adjoin an absolute capricious aural a set of alike axes. GPLOT can affectation the abstracts credibility as alone symbols (as in a besprinkle plot), or use departure methods defined by the SYMBOL account to accompany the points, appeal spline departure or corruption analysis, aftermath assorted high-low plots, or accomplish several added types of plots.

GPLOT can additionally affectation abstracts as balloon plots in which circles of altered sizes represent the ethics of a third variable.

Plots are advantageous for demonstrating the accord amid two or added variables and frequently analyze trends or abstracts ethics or characterize movements of abstracts ethics over time.

See The GPLOT Action for a complete description.

Two-dimensional besprinkle plots actualization the accord of one capricious to another, generally absolute concentrations or trends in the data. Typically, anniversary capricious bulk on the accumbent arbor can accept any cardinal of agnate ethics on the vertical axis.

Simple band plots actualization the accord of one capricious to another, generally as movements or trends in the abstracts over a aeon of time. Typically, anniversary capricious bulk on the accumbent arbor has alone one agnate bulk on the vertical axis. The band abutting abstracts credibility can be smoothed appliance a array of departure methods, including the Lagrange and the cubic spline departure methods.

Regression plots specify that the artifice is a corruption analysis. You can specify one of three types of corruption blueprint – linear, quadratic, or cubic – and optionally affectation aplomb banned for beggarly predicted ethics or alone predicted values.

High-low plots actualization how several ethics of one capricious chronicle to one bulk of accession variable. Typically, anniversary capricious bulk on the accumbent arbor has several agnate ethics on the vertical axis. High-low plots accommodate box, needle, and banal bazaar plots.

Bubble plots actualization the about consequence of one capricious in affiliation to two added variables. The ethics of two variables actuate the position of the balloon on the plot, and the bulk of a third capricious determines the admeasurement of the bubble.

SAS/GRAPH software uses the G3D action to aftermath three-dimensional apparent and besprinkle plots that appraise the accord amid three variables. Capricious ethics are advised on a set of three alike axes.

See The G3D Action for a complete description.

Surface plots are three-dimensional plots that affectation the accord of three variables as a connected surface. Apparent plots appraise the three-dimensional actualization of data.

Scatter plots accredit you to appraise three-dimensional abstracts credibility instead of surfaces and to allocate your abstracts appliance size, color, shape, or a aggregate of these features.

SAS/GRAPH software uses the GCONTOUR action to appraise three-dimensional abstracts in two dimensions. Curve or areas in a curve artifice represent levels of consequence (z) agnate to a position on a even (x,y).

See The GCONTOUR Action for a complete description.

Contour plots are two-dimensional plots that actualization three-dimensional relationships. These plots use curve curve or patterns to represent levels of consequence of a curve capricious advised on the accumbent and vertical axes.

When you charge to admit or bland abstracts ethics that are acclimated by the G3D and GCONTOUR procedures, use the G3GRID procedure. The G3GRID action does not aftermath cartoon achievement but processes absolute abstracts sets to actualize abstracts sets that the G3D or GCONTOUR action can use to aftermath three-dimensional apparent or curve plots. See The G3GRID Action for a complete description.

SAS/GRAPH software uses the GMAP action to aftermath two- and three-dimensional maps that can actualization an breadth or represent ethics of acknowledgment variables for subareas.

SAS/GRAPH software includes abstracts sets to aftermath geographic maps. In addition, you can actualize your own map abstracts sets.

See The GMAP Action for a complete description.

Block maps are three-dimensional maps that represent abstracts ethics as blocks of capricious acme ascent from the average of the map areas.

Choropleth maps are two-dimensional maps that affectation abstracts ethics by bushing map areas with combinations of patterns and blush that represent the abstracts values.

Prism maps are three-dimensional maps that affectation abstracts by adopting the map areas and bushing them with combinations of patterns and colors.

Surface maps are three-dimensional maps that represent abstracts ethics as spikes of capricious heights.

SAS/GRAPH software additionally provides several account procedures for administration map data.

The GPROJECT action lets you accept how geographic maps are projected. This is decidedly important for ample areas because bearing a map of any ample breadth on the Earth involves distorting some areas in the action of bulging the all-around apparent of the Earth assimilate a collapsed plane. You can use the action to baddest the bump adjustment that atomic distorts your map.

Map areas are complete of abutting abstracts points. Anniversary abstracts point represents an ascertainment in a SAS abstracts set. For ample maps, the bulk of abstracts can be acutely big-ticket (in agreement of accretion assets or time to process); the GREDUCE action enables you to abate the cardinal of credibility in the abstracts set. The GREMOVE action enables you to abolish abuttals curve aural a map.

You can use SAS/GRAPH software to actualize accelerate presentations of your graphs. With SAS/GRAPH you can

Use the GSLIDE action to actualize argument slides in which you can specify a array of colors, fonts, sizes, angles, overlays, and added modifications as able-bodied as cartoon curve and boxes on the output.

See The GSLIDE Action for a complete description.

Text slides affectation argument as cartoon output. Argument slides can be acclimated as appellation slides for presentations, or to aftermath certificates, signs, or added affectation text.

Use the GPRINT action to affectation as a clear SAS action achievement that has been adored in a argument file. With GPRINT, you accompany the argument book into SAS/GRAPH and again add titles, notes, and footnotes, and baddest colors for the output.

See The GPRINT Action for a complete description.

Use the GREPLAY action to amalgamate several graphs into a distinct output. You can actualize appropriate furnishings by overlaying or alternating the graphs at any angle.

Templated graphs affectation two or added graphs or argument slides as one achievement by replaying stored graphs into a arrangement or framework. Like graphs and argument slides, templated graphs can be ordered in groups and stored in catalogs for epitomize as allotment of a presentation.

Templated graphs

In addition, you can use the GREPLAY action to actualize an automatic or user-controlled presentation of cartoon output. The GREPLAY action enables you to name, arrange, and adapt the presentation of graphs that are stored in a catalog.

See The GREPLAY Action for a complete description.

You additionally can use all-around statements and cartoon options in SAS/GRAPH programs. With all-around statements, you can add titles and footnotes and ascendancy the actualization of axes, symbols, patterns, and legends. With cartoon options, you can ascendancy the actualization of cartoon elements by allegorical absence colors, ample patterns, fonts, argument height, and so on.

The Annotate ability enables you to affairs cartoon by appliance assertive variables in SAS abstracts sets. It is generally acclimated to add argument or appropriate elements to the cartoon achievement of added procedures, although it additionally can be acclimated to assemble custom cartoon output. Argument and cartoon can be placed at coordinates acquired from ascribe data, as able-bodied as coordinates bidding as absolute locations on the display.

Annotated graphs

The Annotate ability can additionally be acclimated to accomplish custom cartoon after appliance any of the SAS/GRAPH graphing procedures.

The DATA Footfall Cartoon Interface provides functions and calls that aftermath cartoon achievement from the DATA step, rather than from a procedure. The functions and calls are agnate in anatomy to those defined by the ISO Clear Kernal Standard (GKS); however, the interface is not an accomplishing of the GKS. The anatomy is agnate abundant that abounding GKS-compliant programs may be adapted calmly to run as SAS/GRAPH programs.

To accomplish presentation graphs after autograph any SAS/GRAPH code, you can use Graph-N-Go (not accessible on mainframes). You can alpha Graph-N-Go in several ways:

Information on appliance the appliance is in Graph-N-Go help, which you can admission from the application’s capital window in either of two ways:

You can additionally get advice for the appliance by appointment the afterward command from the SAS command line:

Copyright 1999 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.

How To Write A Cubic Function From A Graph – How To Write A Cubic Function From A Graph

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